|Title:||The birth of “normal trauma”: The effect of non-linear development|
Vol. 13, No 2, 2020
Published date: 06-2020 (print) / 06-2020 (online)
Economics & Sociology
ISSN: 2071-789X, eISSN: 2306-3459
|Keywords:||nonlinearity, reflexivity, trauma, construction of trauma, the society of trauma, “normal trauma”, complexity, digitalization, humanistic turn, rigidity turn|
|JEL classification:||Z13, Z19|
The article critically analyzes the approaches to different manifestations of traumatic development and the theories of trauma in historical and cultural context: P. Sztompka’s theory of becoming displaying the effects of “society in action” and “pathological agencies”; J.C. Alexander’s theory of cultural construction of trauma diagnosing the role of mystified meanings in the deformation of social consciousness; Zh.T. Toschenko’s theory of “the society of trauma” that substantiates a new specific modality of development. Relying on the postulates of these approaches the author of the paper proposes further investigations, showing the formation of a new phenomenon in the form of “normal trauma”, which is understood as a ‘normal’, emergent, and significant deformation of socio-technical-natural realities due to the effects of non-linear development. It is stated that traumatic development leads to the increase of such “systemic uncertainties” as “normal accidents” (Ch. Perrow), ‘normal’ “climate turbulence” (J. Urry, A. Giddens), “normal anomie” (S. Kravchenko) that in fact give traumas determined by non-linear development a ‘normal, natural’ character. The author sees the minimization of the consequences of “normal trauma” in a special type of reflexivity, which includes both “humanistic” and “rigidity” turns aimed at achieving a more humane society and counteracting turbulences.
1. Alexander, J.C. (2003). The Meanings of Social Life. A Cultural Sociology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Alexander, J.С. (2012). Trauma. A Social Theory. Cambridge: Polity Press.
3. Alexander, J.С. (2017). The Drama of Social Life. Cambridge: Polity Press.
4. Baudrillard, J. (1995). The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. Sydney: Power Publication.
5. Bauman, Z. (2007). Liquid Times. Living in an Age of Uncertainty. Cambridge: Polity Press.
6. Bauman, Z., Donskis, L. (2013). Moral Blindness. The Loss of Sensitivity in Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.
7. Beck, U. (2012). Twenty Observations on a World in Turmoil. Cambridge: Polity Press.
8. Beck, U. (2016). The Metamorphosis of the World. Polity Press, Cambridge.
9. Brunsma, D.L., Overfelt, D., Picou, J.S., editors (2010). The Sociology of Katrina. Perspectives on a Modern Catastrophe. 2-nd ed. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield publishers.
10. Caruth, C. (1995). Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
11. Castells, M. (2010). The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Volume I: The Rise of the Network Society. Second edition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
12. Castells, M. (2015). Networks of Outrage and Hope. Social Movements in the Internet Age. Second edition. Cambridge: Polity Press.
13. Engels, F. (1925). Dialectics of the Nature. Vol. 20. London: Wellred Books.
14. Freud, S. (1953). Civilization and Its Discontents / translated from German by J. Riviere. London: The Hogarth Press.
15. Fromm, E. (1955). The Sane Society. New York, Chicago, San Francisco: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
16. Giddens, A. (1984). The Constitution of Society. Cambridge: Polity Press.
17. Giddens, A. (2009). The Politics of Climate Change. Cambridge: Polity Press.
18. Giddens, A. (2016). Turbulent and Mighty Continent. What Future for Europe? Cambridge: Polity Press.
19. Gilman, Ch. P. (1971). The Man-made World or, Our Androcentric Culture. N.Y.: Johnson Reprint Corporation.
20. Greenfield, S. (2011). ‘Computers may be altering our brains – we must ask how’. The Independent, 12 Augest.
21. Hannigan, J. (2014). Environmental Sociology. London and New York: Routledge.
22. Kivisto, P. (2017). The Trump Phenomenon. Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited.
23. Klein, N. (2014). This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate. London: Allen Lane.
24. Kravchenko, S.A. (2010). Dynamics of contemporary realities: innovative approaches. Sociological Studies. Monthly, 10, 14-25 (In Russian).
25. Kravchenko, S.A. (2011). Sociology on the move to interaction of theoretical and methodological approaches. Sociological Studies. Monthly, 1, 11-18 (In Russian).
26. Kravchenko, S.A. (2014a). Re-discovery of social reality as an indicator of sociological knowledge validity. Sociological Studies. Monthly, 5, 27-37 (In Russian).
27. Kravchenko, S.A. (2014). “A normal anomie”: Contours of conception. Sociological Studies. Monthly, 8, 3-10 (In Russian).
28. Kravchenko, S.A. (2017). The coexistence of riskophobia and riskophilia – An expression of “normal anomie”. Sociological Studies. Monthly, 2, 3-13 (In Russian).
29. Lash, S., Urry, J. (1994). Economies of Signs and Space. London: Sage.
30. Lash, S., Urry, J. (1987). The End of Organized Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1987.
31. Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network Theory. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
32. Latour, B., Woolgar, S. (2013). Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
33. Mosco, V. (2017). Becoming Digital. Toward a Post-Internet Society. Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley.
34. Parsons, T. (1953). Essays in Sociological Theory. Glencoe, Il: Free Press.
35. Perrow, Ch. (1999). Normal Accidents: Living with High Risk Technologies. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
36. Prigogine, I. (1997). The End of Certainty. New York: Free Press.
37. Prigogine, I., Stengers, I. (2018). Order Out of Chaos: Man's New Dialogue with Nature, Verso.
38. Roudemetof, V. (2016). Clocalization. A Critical Introduction. London and New York: Routledge.
39. Simmel, G. (1990). The Philosophy of Money. London: Routledge.
40. Thomas, D.S.K., Phillips, B.D., Lovekamp, W.E., Fothergill, A. (eds). (2013). Social Vulnerability to Disasters. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
41. Sorokin, P. (1937). Social and Cultural Dynamics. Cincinnati: American Book Company.
42. Sorokin, P. (1941). The Crisis of Our Age. New York: Dutton.
43. Sztompka, P. (2004). The Trauma of Social Change. A Case of Postcommunist Societies // Alexander, J., Eyerman, R., Giesen, B., Smelser, N., Sztompka, P. (eds.). Cultural Trauma and Collective Identity: Toward a Theory of Cultural Trauma. Berkeley, CA: Uni
44. Toschenko, Zh. T. The Society of Trauma: Between Evolution and Revolution (the Experience of Theoretical and Empirical Analysis). Moscow: Ves Mir, 2020.
45. Urry J. (2011). Climate Change and Society. Malden: Polity Press, 2011.
46. Urry, J. (2008). Mobilities. Cambridge: Polity Press.
47. Vanderburg, W.H. (2016). Our Battle for the Human Spirit. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
48. Vanderburg, W.H. (2011). Our War on Ourselves: Rethinking Science, Technology, and Economic Growth. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
49. Weber, M. (1968). Economy and Society. New York: Bedminster Press.