Economics & Sociology

ISSN: 2071-789X eISSN: 2306-3459 DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X
Index PUBMS: f5512f57-a601-11e7-8f0e-080027f4daa0

Stakeholder participation in the process of agricultural policy-making is a way to express public interest and thus to better ensure sustainability of the sector as well as of a country. In agriculture, variety of stakeholders and their organizations is huge, and their power and ability to protect common interests are uneven. Studies on interest management note that contradictions between interest-based actors could be solved most effectively through their collaboration. Thus, the article aims to identify key capacities of agricultural organizations to fulfil their members’ interests at the level of agricultural policy. With this aim, interviews with the leaders of agricultural NGOs were carried out. Opinions of experts were elicited using the 10-point Likert scale. The LiT method of grades’ transformation given in the Likert scale to weights was proposed and used. The resulting weights revealed the significance of each question. As the result, shared resources, stakeholders' motivation and commitment, teamwork and synergy between intersectorial actors was found as the main collaborative capacities while influence-making, and the ability to act according to regulations and procedures has been estimated as a highly important participative capacity for agricultural NGOs.


1. Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018‘. Available: (accessed on 12, April, 2018).

2. Analoui, F. & Samour, A. (2012). The managers' characteristics and their strategy development in the Palestinian NGOs: An empirical study in Palestine. Journal of Management Development, 31(7), 691-699.

3. Arnstein, S.R. (1969). A ladder of Citizen Participation. Journal of the American Planning Association, 35(4), 216-224.

4. Arras, S. & Braun, C. (2018). Stakeholders wanted! Why and how European Union agencies involve non-state stakeholders. Journal of European Public Policy, 25 (9), 1257-1275.

5. Baimyrzaeva, M. (2012). Institutional reforms in the public sector: what did we learn? Research in Public Policy Analysis and Management, Emerald books.

6. Basco-Carrera, L.; Warren, A.; Van Beek, E.; Jonoski, A. & Giardino, A. (2017). Collaborative modelling or participative modelling? A framework for resources management. Environmental Modelling and Software, 91, 95-110.

7. Bilan, Y., Lyeonov, S., Stoyanets, N., & Vysochyna, A. (2018). The impact of environmental determinants of sustainable agriculture on country food security. International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, 21(5-6), 289-305.

8. Bitzer, V. (2012). Partnering for change in chains: The capacity of partnerships to promote sustainable change in global agri-food chains. International Food and Agribusiness Review, 15B, 13-38.

9. Bolger, J. (2000). Capacity development: why, what and how. Canadian International Development Agency, 1(1), 1-9.

10. Boulton, A.; Lockett, R. & Seymour, T. (2013). A review and evaluation of collaborative landscape-scale management initiatives. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned, Report No. 598.

11. Bruns, B. (2003). Water Tenure Reform: Developing an Extended Ladder of Participation Practices, Politics of the Commons: Articulating Development and Strengthening Local Practices, Thailand.

12. Burinskiene, M.; Bielinskas, V.; Podviezko, A.; Gurskiene, V. & Maliene, V. (2017). Evaluating the significance of criteria contributing to decision-making on brownfield land redevelopment strategies in urban areas. Sustainability (Switzerland), 9(5).

13. Connor, D.M. (1988). A New Ladder of Citizen Participation. National Civic Review, 77(3), 248-257.

14. Dahooie, J.; Zavadskas, E.; Abolhasani, M.; Vanaki, A. & Turskis, Z. (2018). A Novel Approach for Evaluation of Projects Using an Interval–Valued Fuzzy Additive Ratio Assessment (ARAS) Method: A Case Study of Oil and Gas Well Drilling Projects. Symmetry,

15. European Commision. (2018). Available at: (accessed on 10, April, 2018)

16. Falconer, K. (2000). Farm-level constraints on agri-environmental scheme participation: a transactional perspective. Journal of Rural Studies, 16, 379-394.

17. Farhad, A. & Akram, S. (2012). The managers' characteristics and their strategy developmentin the Palestinian NGOs: An empirical study in Palestine. Journal of Management Development, 31, 691-699.

18. Ferto, I. (2018). Global agri-food trade competitiveness: Gross versus value added exports. Agris on-Line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 10(4), 39-47.

19. Flick, U. (2014). An introduction to qualitative research. London: Sage. 616 p.

20. Fung, A. (2006). Varieties of Participation in Complex Governance. Public Administration Review, 66 (1), 66-75.

21. Garard, J. & Kowarsch, M. (2017). Objectives for Stakeholder Engagement in Global Environmental Assessments. Sustainability, 9, 1571.

22. Gorb, O. (2017). Solving the problem of concentration of agricultural lands by agricultural holdings from the perspective of rural development. Economics, Management and Sustainability, 2(2), 79-85. doi:10.14254/jems.2017.2-2.8

23. Green, O.A. & Hunton‐Clarke, L. (2003). A typology of stakeholder participation for company environmental decision‐making. Business Strategy and the Environment, 12(5), 292-299.

24. Grindle, M.S. & Hilderbrand, M.E. (1995). Building sustainable capacity in the public sector: What can be done? Public Administration and Development, 15(5), 441-463.

25. Halpin, D. (2017). Surviving Global Change? – Agricultural Interest Groups in Comparative Perspective. Routledge.

26. Harris, J.; Croot, L.; Thompson, J. & Springett, J. (2016). How stakeholder participation can contribute to systematic reviews of complex interventions. Epidemiol Community Helth, 70, 207-214.

27. Hloušková, Z., Ženíšková, P., & Prášilová, M. (2018). Comparison of agricultural costs prediction approaches. Agris on-Line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 10(1), 3-13.

28. Kim, RH. (1997). Korean NGOs: Global trend and prospect, GlobalEconomic Review, 26(2), 93-115.

29. Krarup, S.; Christensen, T. & Denver, S. (2008). Are Organic Consumers Healthier than Others? Cultivating the Future Based on Science: 2nd Conference of the International Society of Organic Agriculture Research ISOFAR, Modena, Italy, June 18-20.

30. Krom, M.P.M.M. (2017). Farmer participation in agri-environmental schemes: Regionalization and role of bridging social capital. Land Use Policy, 60, 352-361.

31. Kuliešis, G. & Pareigienė, L. (2010). Evaluatinion of attitudes to cooperate. Vadybos mokslas ir studijos - kaimo verslų ir jų infrastruktūros plėtrai, 5(24), 108-115.

32. Lavergne, R. & Saxby, J. (2001). Capacity development: vision and implications. Canadian International Development Agency, Occasional Series, 3.

33. Li, Q. (2013). A novel Likert scale based on fuzzy sets theory. Expert Systems with Applications, 40(5), 1609–1618.

34. Likert, R. (1932). A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 22(140), 1–55.

35. Linke, S. & Jentoft, S. (2016). Ideals, realities and paradoxes of stakeholder participation in EU fisheries governance. Environmental Sociology, 2( 2), 144-154.

36. Loi, T.H. (2016). Stakeholder management: a case of its related capability and performance. Management Decision, 54 (1), 148-173.

37. Morgan, T.; Anokhin, S.A.; Song, C. & Chistyakova, N. (2019). The role of customer participation in building new product development speed capabilities in turbulent environments. International Entrepreneurship Management Journal, 15(1), 119-133.

38. Mott Lacroix, K.E. & Megdal, S.B. (2016). Explore, Synthesize, and Repeat: Unraveling Complex Water Management Issues through the Stakeholder Engagement Wheel. Water, 8, 118.

39. Nagyová, L., Holienčinová, M., Rovný, P., Dobák, D., & Bilan, Y. (2016). Food security drivers: Economic sustainability of primary agricultural production in the Slovak Republic. Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues. 6(2), 259-274.

40. Newig, J.; Challies, E.; Jager, N. W.; Kochskaemper, E. & Adzersen, A. (2018). The Environmental Performance of Participatory and Collaborative Governance: A Framework of Causal Mechanisms. PSJ, 46, 269-297.

41. Newig, J.; Challies, E.; Jager, N.W.; Kochskaemper, E. & Adzersen, A. (2017). The Environmental Performance of Participatory and Collaborative Governance: A Framework of Causal Mechanisms. Policy Studies Journal, 00(00), 1-29.

42. Osei-Kojo, A. & Andrews, N. (2016). Questioning the Status Quo: Can Stakeholder Participation Improve Implementation of Small-Scale Mining Laws in Ghana? Resources, 5, 33.

43. Palevicius, V., Podviezko, A., Sivilevicius, H., & Prentkovskis, O. (2018). Decision-aiding evaluation of public infrastructure for electric vehicles in cities and resorts of Lithuania. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(4).

44. Pedrosa Ortega, C., Hernández-Ortiz, M.J., García Martí, E., & Vallejo Martos, M.C. (2019). The Stakeholder Salience Model Revisited: Evidence from Agri-Food Cooperatives in Spain. Sustainability, 11, 574.

45. Podvezko, V. & Podviezko, A. (2015). Eliciting opinions of experts using uncertainty. Proc. of the Lithuanian Mathematical Society, 56, 78–83.

46. Polakovic, P., Šilerová, E., Hennyeyová, K., & Slováková, I. (2018). Business process management in linking enterprise information technology in companies of agricultural sector. Agris on-Line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 10(3), 119-126.

47. Poór, J., Juhász, T., Machová, R., Bencsik, A., & Bilan, S. (2018). Knowledge management in human resource management: Foreign-owned subsidiaries’ practices in four CEE countries. Journal of International Studies, 11(3), 295-308. doi:10.14254/2071-8330.20

48. Prager, K. & Freese, J. (2009). Stakeholder involvement in agri-environmental policy making – Learning from a local- and a state-level approach in Germany. Journal of Environmental Management, 90, 1154-1167.

49. Prager, K. (2015). Agri-environmental collaboratives for landscape management in Europe. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 12, 59-66.

50. Purvis, R.L.; Zagenczyk, J.T.; Zagenczyk, T.J. & Mccray, G.E. (2015). What's in it for me? Using expectancy theory and climate to explain stakeholder participation, its direction and intensity. International Journal of Project Management, 33, 3–14.

51. Raišienė, A. G. & Baranauskaitė, L. (2018). Investigating complexity of intersectoral collaboration: contextual framework for research. Contemporary Research on Organization Management and Administration, 6(1), 79-89.

52. Raišienė, A.G.; Podviezko, A. & Bilan, Y. (2018). Feasibility of Stakeholder Participation in Organizations of Common Interest for Agricultural Policy Making. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 18(2), 272-291.

53. Reed, M.S. (2008). Stakeholder participation for environmental management: A literature review. Biological conservation, 141, 2417-2431.

54. Revilla, BP. & van der Valk, A. (2016). In Pursuit of a Participatory Society: The role of the participatory agent. Urban Agriculture Magazine, 31, 41-42.

55. Sisto R.; Lopolito A. & van Vliet M. (2018). Stakeholder participation in planning rural development strategies: Using backcasting to support Local Action Groups in complying with CLLD requirements. Land Use Policy, 70, 442-450.

56. Skouloudis, A.; Evangelinos, K. & Malesios, C. (2015). Priorities and Perceptions for Corporate Social Responsibility: An NGO Perspective. Corp. Soc. Responsib. Environ. Mgmt., 22, 95–112.

57. Statistics Lithuania, Official Statistics Portal. (2019). Available at: (accessed on 15, January, 2019).

58. Towards A Post-2020 Common Agricultural Policy. (2018). Available on line: (accessed on 1, April, 2018).

59. Vargas, V.R.; Lawthom, R.; Prowse, A.; Randles, S. & Tzoulas, K. (2019). Sustainable development stakeholder networks for organisationalchangeorganisational change in higher education institutions: A case study from the UK. Journal of Cleaner Production,

60. Vonglao, P. (2017). Application of fuzzy logic to improve the Likert scale to measure latent variables. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 38(3), 337–344.

61. Waheed, S. (1999). Capacity Building in Public Sector Organisations. The Pakistan Development Review, 38:4, 913–934.

62. Wang, K. & Ma, Y. (2017). What Art for Whose City?: A Stakeholder Analysis of Social Policy Making for Public Art Administration in Hefei City, China. International Journal of Social Sciences, 6(2), 77-95.

63. Wesselink, A.; Paavola, J.; Fritsch, O. & Renn, O. (2011). Rationales for Public Participation in Environmental Policy and Governance: Practitioners' Perspectives. Environment and Planning, Economy and Space, 43(1), 2688 – 2704.

64. Wezemael, L.V.; Caputo, V.; Nayga, Jr.R.M.; Chryssochoidis, G. & Verbeke, W. (2014). European consumer preferences for beef with nutrition and health claims: A multi-country investigation using discrete choice experiments, Food Policy, 44, 167–176.

65. Wijaya, A.; Glasbergen, P.; Leroy, P. & Darmastut, A. (2018). Governance challenges of cocoa partnership projects in Indonesia: seeking synergy in multi-stakeholder arrangements for sustainable agriculture. Environ Dev Sustain, 20(1), 29–153.

66. Wilson, G.A. (1997). Factors influencing farmer participation in the ESA scheme. Journal of Environmental Management, 50, 67-93.

67. Žiliukaitė, R. (2012). Quantitative growth of the NGO sector in Lithuania: when the number of organizations increases without significant effects on participation level. Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas, 1(30), 242-257.