Economics & Sociology

ISSN: 2071-789X eISSN: 2306-3459 DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X
Index PUBMS: f5512f57-a601-11e7-8f0e-080027f4daa0
Article information
Title: Comparison of Trust and Social Relations among Students in Russian and Hungarian Higher Education
Issue: Vol. 10, No 4, 2017
Published date: 12-2017 (print) / 12-2017 (online)
Journal: Economics & Sociology
ISSN: 2071-789X, eISSN: 2306-3459
Authors: Kornélia Lazányi
Óbuda University

Martin Čepel
Ligs University LLC

Svitlana Bilan
Centre of Sociological Research
Keywords: trust, social embeddedness, Hungary, Russia, World Values Survey, European Social Survey
DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X.2017/10-4/13
Index PUBMS: 34a19ef7-f8fc-11e7-94c4-fa163e5d4f72
Language: English
Pages: 162-174 (13)
JEL classification: Z13

Trust is the basis of social relations and the building block of every society. However, various societies have different levels of social trust, which is a consequence of various cultural dimensions’ as well as historic and economic variables’ interplay. The paper intends to explore the relation of social embeddedness and the level of interpersonal trust in two significantly different cultures – Russian and Hungarian. The results presented in the article are, on the one hand, the outcomes of secondary analysis of the data obtained from the World Values Survey and the European Social Survey, on the other hand, they also offer an insight into the still ongoing primary research on 585 students in business higher education in Hungary and Russia. The results indicate that although there are gender and other demographic variables based differences, social embeddedness and national culture (values, attitudes, behaviour) is of relevant influence on the level of interpersonal trust. According to the data presented, the Hungarians – despite being a low-trust nation – in general trust their peers more than the Russians do. However, if we distinguish between two forms of trust – thick and thin – the Hungarians then achieve significantly higher scores in thin trust only.


1. Anderson, N., Potočnik, K., Zhou, J. (2014). Innovation and creativity in organizations: A state-of-the-science review, prospective commentary, and guiding framework. Journal of Management, 40(5), 1297-1333.

2. Balliet, D.,Van Lange, P. A. (2013). Trust, punishment, and cooperation across 18 societies: A meta-analysis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8(4), 363-379.

3. Bond, M. H., Leung, K., Au, A., Tong, K. K., De Carrasquel, S. R., Murakami, F., ... Boen, F. (2004). Culture-level dimensions of social axioms and their correlates across 41 cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35(5), 548-570.

4. Cook, K. S., Hardin, R., Levi M. (2005). Cooperation without trust? New York, Russell Sage Foundation.

5. Cutrona, C. E., Suhr, J. A. (1992). Controllability of stressful events and satisfaction with spouse support behaviors. Communication Research, 19(2), 154-174.

6. Davis, J. P. (2016). The Group Dynamics of Interorganizational Relationships Collaborating with Multiple Partners in Innovation Ecosystems. Administrative Science Quarterly, 61(4), 621-661.

7. Deelstra, J. T., Peeters, M. C. W., Schaufeli, W. B., Stroebe, W., Zijlstra F. R. H., van Doornen, L. P (2003). Receiving instrumental support at work: When help is not welcome. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2), 324-331.

8. Dessewffy, T. (2014). A gonosz szociológiája. Budapest, Geopen Könyvkiadó.

9. Ellison, N. B., Vitak, J., Gray, R., Lampe, C. (2014). Cultivating social resources on social network sites: Facebook relationship maintenance behaviors and their role in social capital processes. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 19(4), 855-870

10. Erikson, E. (1993). Childhood and Society. New York: Norton.

11. European Social Survey’s (ESS, 2017). // (referred on 02/062017).

12. Freel, M. (2000). External linkages and product innovation in small manufacturing firms. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 12(3), 245-266.

13. Freitag, M., Bauer, P. C. (2013). Testing for measurement equivalence in surveys dimensions of social trust across cultural contexts. Public Opinion Quarterly, 77(1), 24-44.

14. Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust: The social virtues and the creation of prosperity. Free Press Paperbacks.

15. Gambetta, D. (2000). Can we trust trust? In: Gambetta, D. (ed.), Trust: Making and breaking cooperative relations. Blackwell, 213-237.

16. Granovetter, M. (2005). The impact of social structure on economic outcomes. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(1), 33-50.

17. Hadiwitanto, H. (2015). Religion and Generalised Trust: An Empirical-theological Study. LIT Verlag, Berlin.

18. Hansen, M. T., Podolny, J. M., Pfeffer, J. (2001). So many ties, so little time: A task contingency perspective on corporate social capital in organizations 21-57. In Social capital of organizations Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

19. Hardin, R. (2002). Trust and Trustworthiness. Russell Sage Foundation, New York.

20. Khodyakov, D. (2007). Trust as a process: A three-dimensional approach. Sociology, 41(1), 115-132.

21. Kohn, M. (2009). Trust: Self-interest and the common good. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

22. Lazányi, K., Bilan, J., Baimakova, K (2017). Do people in collectivist cultures trust each other more? – Comparative analysis of Hungarian and Russian students in business higher education. The Monitoring of Public Opinion: Economic and Social Changes Jou

23. Lin, H. F. (2011). An empirical investigation of mobile banking adoption: The effect of innovation attributes and knowledge-based trust. International Journal of Information Management, 31(3), 252-260.

24. Luhmann, N. (1988). Familiarity, Confidence, Trust: Problems and Alternatives. In: D. Gambetta (ed.), Trust. Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations, 94-107. New York: Basil Blackwell.

25. Markowska-Przybyła, U., Ramsey, D. M. (2015). Social Capital and Polish Students’ Behaviour in Experimental Games Designed to Illustrate Cooperation. Economics and Sociology, 8(4), 191-206.

26. Maslow, A. K., Lewis, J. (1987). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Salenger Incorporated: 14.

27. McAllister, D. J. (1995). Affect-and cognition-based trust as foundations for interpersonal cooperation in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 38(1), 24-59.

28. Messick, D. and R. Kramer (2001). Trust as a Form of Shallow Morality. In: K. Cook (ed.), Trust in Society, 89-119. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

29. Nagaj, R., & Zuromskaité, B. (2016). Incomes and the Willingness of Students in Poland and Lithuania to Participate in Charitable Activities. Journal of International Studies, 9(2), 127-138.

30. Newton, K. (2001). Trust, Social Capital, Civil Society and Democracy. International Political Science Review, 22, 201-14.

31. Newton, K., Zmerli, S. (2011). Three forms of trust and their association. European Political Science Review, 3(2), 169-200.

32. Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling Alone. The Collapse and Revival of American Community. Simon and Schuster, New York.

33. Schneider, B., Ehrhardt, M. G., Macey, W. H. (2014). Organizational Climate and Culture. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 361-388.

34. Sol, J., Beers, P. J., Wals, A. E. (2013). Social learning in regional innovation networks: trust, commitment and reframing as emergent properties of interaction. Journal of Cleaner Production, 49, 35-43.

35. Solomon, R., F. Flores (2001). Building Trust in Business, Politics, Relationships, and Life. New York: Oxford University Press.

36. Szkudlarek, P., Biglieri J. V. (2016). Trust as an element of social capital – evidence from a survey of Polish and Spanish students. Journal of International Studies, 9(1), 252-264.

37. Sun, S. (2009). Organizational culture and its themes. International Journal of Business and Management, 3(12), 137.

38. Thompson, R. A. (1995). What is social support? In: Thompson (ed.), Preventing child maltreatment through social support: A critical analysis (43-65). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

39. Uslaner, R. (2008). The foundations of trust: macro and micro. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 32, 289-94.

40. Williams, L. L. (2006). The fair factor in matters of trust. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 30(1), 30-37.

41. WVS (2015). World Values Survey 1981-2014 Longitudinal Aggregate v.20150418. World Values Survey Association ( Aggregate File Producer: JDSystems, Madrid SPAIN.

42. Zucker, L. G. (1986). Production of trust: Institutional sources of economic structure, 1840–1920. Research in Organizational Behaviour, 8, 53-111.