|Title:||Social Media and Higher Education – An International Perspective|
Vol. 10, No 1, 2017
Published date: 03-2017 (print) / 03-2017 (online)
Economics & Sociology
ISSN: 2071-789X, eISSN: 2306-3459
Poznan University of Economics and Business
Universitat de Girona
|Keywords:||social media, higher education, international markets|
|JEL classification:||I23, I25, I10|
This study explores the use of social media in higher education with a particular focus on the role of cultural and socioeconomic differences. The dataset, built on surveyed respondents from China, Poland, Spain, Turkey and United States, was analysed using quantitative techniques that allowed us to test various hypotheses. Findings show that the use of social media for educational purposes is determined by socio-demographic variables (gender, age, education level) that returned different social media users’ profiles across countries. Overall, the results indicate that social media is a useful tool of communication between teachers and students but that national cultural differences must be taken into account in the design of subjects and teaching materials used by teachers in the digital environment. From another point of view, the results related with the cultural differences and the socio-economic determinants may give insight to the marketers in the promotion of education related products such as books, language schools, degree and certificate programs in social media.
1. Ahmed, M. A. (2011), Social media for higher education in developing countries – An intercultural perspective, Educating Educators with Social Media, Vol. 1, pp. 59-80.
2. Anderson, P. (2007), What is Web 2.0?: Ideas, technologies and implications for education, JISC Technology & Standards Watch (February), Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-64.
3. Bartow, S. M. (2014), Teaching with social media: disrupting present day public education, Educational Studies, Vol. 50, pp. 36-64.
4. Benson, V., Saridakis, G. and Tennakoon, H. (2015), Purpose of social networking use and victimisation: Are there any differences between university students and those not in HE? Computers in Human Behavior, No. 51 (Part B, October), pp. 867-872.
5. Blankenship, M. (2010), How social media can and should impact higher education, Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education Magazine, 21 (November 29, 2010), pp. 11-12, http://www.hispanicoutlook.com/mark-blankenship/?tag=01%2F03%2F2011+Issue (10 October 2016).
6. Bolton, R. N., Parasuraman, A., Hoefnagels, A., Migchels, N., Kabadayi, S., Gruber, T., Komarova Loureiro, Y. and Solnet, D. (2013), Understanding Generation Y and their use of social media: a review and research agenda, Journal of Service Management, Vol
7. Brenner, J., and Smith, A. (2013), 72% of online adults are social networking site users, Pew Research Center,
8. http://www.pewinternet.org/~/media/Files/Reports/2013/PIP_Social_networking_sites_update.pdf (21 November 2016).
9. Cassidy, E. D., Britsch, J., Grifﬁn, G., Manolovitz, T., Shen, L. and Turney, L. (2011), Higher education and emerging technologies: student usage, preferences and lessons for library services, Reference & User Services Quarterly, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 380-
10. Craig, C. S. and Douglas, S. P. (2005), International Marketing Research, 3rd Edition, Chichester: John Wiley&Sons, Ltd.
11. Duggan, M., Ellison, N. B., Lampe, C., Lenhart, A. and Madden, M. (2015), Social media update 2014, http://www.pewinternet.org/files/2015/01/PI_SocialMediaUpdate20144.pdf (10 November 2016).
12. Furner, C. P. and George, J. F. (2012), Cultural determinants of media choice for deception, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 1427-1438.
13. Gammon, M. A. and White, J. (2011), (Social) media literacy: challenges and opportunities for higher education, In: C. Wankel (Ed.), Educating Educators with Social Media (Cutting-edge Technologies in Higher Education, Vol. 1, pp. 329-345), UK: Emerald Gr
14. Gregory, P., Gregory, K. and Eddy, E. (2014), The instructional network: using Facebook to enhance undergraduate mathematics instruction, Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 5-26.
15. Hamade, S. N. (2013), Perception and use of social networking sites among university students, Library Review, Vol. 62, No. 6/7, pp. 388-397.
16. Hamid, S., Waycott, J., Kurnia, S. and Chang, S. (2015), Understanding students' perceptions of the benefits of online social networking use for teaching and learning, The Internet and Higher Education, Vol. 26, pp. 1-9.
17. Head, A. J. (2013), Learning the ropes: how freshmen conduct course research once they enter college, Project Information Literacy Research Report, http://projectinfolit.org/pdfs/PIL_2013_FreshmenStudy_FullReport.pdf (10 November 2016).
18. Hicks, A. and Graber, A. (2010), Shifting paradigms: Teaching, learning and Web 2.0, Reference Services Review, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 621-33.
19. Hung, H. T. and Yuen, S. C. Y. (2010), Educational use of social networking technology in higher education, Teaching in Higher Education, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 703-714.
20. Hussain, I. (2012), A study to evaluate the social media trends among university students, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, No. 64, pp. 639-645.
21. Jones, S. Johnson-Yale, C., Millermaier, S. and Pérez, F. S. (2009), U.S. college students’ Internet use: race, gender and digital divides, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, No. 14, pp. 244-264.
22. Junco, R., Merson, D. and Salter, D. W. (2010), The effect of gender, ethnicity, and income on college students’ use of communication technologies, Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 619-27.
23. Kahn, P., Everington, L., Kelm, K., Reid, I. and Watkins, F. (2016), Understanding student engagement in online learning environments: the role of reflexivity, Educational Technology Research and Development, DOI 10.1007/s11423-016-9484-z.
24. Kaplan, A. M. and Haenlein, M. (2010), Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media, Business Horizons, No. 53, pp. 59-68.
25. Kassens-Noor, E. (2012), Twitter as a teaching practice to enhance active and informal learning in higher education: The case of sustainable tweets, Active Learning in Higher Education, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 9-21.
26. Kim, K-S., Sin, S-C.J. and Tsai, T-I. (2014), Individual differences in social media use for information seeking, The Journal of Academic Libriarianship, No. 40, pp. 171-178.
27. Lin, K. Y. and Lu, H. P. (2011), Why people use social networking sites: an empirical study integrating network externalities and motivation theory, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 1152-1161.
28. Madden, M. and Zickuhr, K. (2011), 65% of online adults use social networking sites. http://www.pewinternet.org/media/files/reports/2011/pip-sns-update-2011.pdf (5 November 2016).
29. McLoughlin, C. and Lee, M. J. W. (2010), Personalized and self-regulated learning in the web 2.0 era: International exemplars of innovative pedagogy using social software, Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 28-43.
30. Merrill, N. (2011), Social media for social research: applications for higher education communications, In: Wankel, C. & Wankel, L. (Eds.), Higher Education Administration with Social Media, Cutting Edge Technologies in Higher Education, Vol. 2, pp. 25-48
31. Moore, K. and McElroy, J. C. (2012), The influence of personality on Facebook usage, wall postings, and regret, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 267-274.
32. Munguatosha, G. M., Muyinda, P. B. and Lubega, J. T. (2011), A social networked learning adoption model for higher education institutions in developing countries, On the Horizon, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 307-320.
33. Muscanell, N. L. and Guadagno, R. E. (2012), Make new friends or keep the old: gender and personality differences in social networking use, Computers in Human Behavior, No. 28, pp. 107-12.
34. Nadkarni, A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2012), Why do people use Facebook? Personality and Individual Differences, 52 (3), pp. 243-249.
35. Nakagawa, K. and Arzubiaga, A. E. (2014), The use of social media in teaching race, Adult Learning, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 103-110.
36. Ngai, E. W. T., Moon, K. K., Lam, S. S., Chin, E. S. K. and Tao, S. S. C. (2015), Social media models, technologies, and applications, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 115, No. 5, pp. 769-802.
37. Nicholas, D., Watkinson, A., Rowlands, I. and Jubb, M. (2011), Social media, academic research and the role of university libraries, Journal of Academic Librarianship, Vol. 37, No. 5, pp. 373-375.
38. Nichols, M. and Anderson, B. (2005), Strategic e-learning implementation, Journal of Educational Technology and Society, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 1-8.
39. Nunnally, J. C. (1978), Psychometric Theory, 2nd Edition, New York, McGraw-Hill.
40. Park, J. H. (2010), Differences among university students and faculties in social networking site perception and use: Implications for academic library services, Electronic Library, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 417-431.
41. Patino, A., Pitta, D. A. and Quinones, R. (2012), Social media’s emerging importance in market research, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 233-237.
42. Prensky, M. (2001), Digital natives, digital immigrants, On the Horizon, Vol. 9, No. 5, pp. 1-6.
43. Ray, D. (2014), Overcoming cross-cultural barriers to knowledge management using social media, Journal of Enterprise Information Management, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 45-55.
44. Richardson, W. (2006), Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and other Powerful Web Tools for Classrooms, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
45. Ruleman, A. B. (2012), Social media at the university: a demographic comparison, New Library World, Vol. 113, No. 7/8, pp. 316-332.
46. Saw, G., Abbott, W., Donaghey, J. and McDonald, C. (2013), Social media for international students – it's not all about Facebook, Library Management, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 156-174.
47. Schouten, P. (2011), Using social media in study abroad, In: Wankel, L. & Wankel, C. (Eds.), Higher Education Administration with Social Media, Cutting-edge Technologies in Higher Education, Vol. 2, pp. 127-145, Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
48. Selwyn, N. (2010), Looking beyond learning: Notes towards the critical study of educational technology, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 65-73.
49. Sheldon, P. (2015), Understanding students’ reasons and gender differences in adding faculty as Facebook friends, Computers in Human Behavior, No. 53, pp. 58-62.
50. Skiera, B., Hinz, O. and Spann, M. (2015), Social media and academic performance: does the intensity of Facebook activity relate to good grades? Schmalenbach Business Review, Vol. 67, No. 1, pp. 54-72.
51. Smith, A., Rainie, L. and Zickuhr, K. (2011), College students and technology. Pew Research Center, http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2011/College-students-and-technology/Report.aspx. (9 December 2016).
52. Tenopir, C., Volentine, R. and King, D. W. (2013), Social media and scholarly reading, Online Information Review, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 193-216.
53. Tess, P. A. (2013), The role of social media in higher education classes (real and virtual) – A literature review, Computers in Human Behavior, No. 29, A60-A68.
54. Ward, R. (2006), Blogs and wikis: A personal journey, Business Information Review, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 235-240.
55. Williams, D. L., Crittenden, V. L., Keo, T. and McCarty, P. (2012), The use of social media: an exploratory study of uses among digital natives, Journal of Public Affairs, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 127-136.
56. Zhang, X., Liu, L., de Pablos, P. O. and She J. (2014), The auxiliary role of information technology in teaching: Enhancing programming course using alice, International Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 560-565.
57. Zhang, Z. and Xueb, Y. (2015), An investigation of how Chinese university students use social software for learning purposes, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, No. 186, pp. 70-78.