This study offers a structural model based on the social exchange theory (SET) and bottom-up spillover theory. The model presents a discussion on the relationships among non-economic factors including perceived sociocultural and environmental impacts of tourism, satisfaction with the way of life and recreation amenities domains, overall quality of life satisfaction and residents support for sustainable tourism development (SSTD) This study uses self-administered survey and employs structural equation modeling (SEM) approach, using the sample of 542 local residents in six different districts of Langkawi Island, Malaysia. The findings reveal that perceived environmental impacts of tourism as a non-economic factor did not influence the domain of residents’ way of life, while it had a significant impact on the domain of recreation amenities. Moreover, perceived sociocultural impacts of tourism influenced both residents’ satisfaction with the way of life and recreation amenities life domains, which in turn affected overall quality of life satisfaction. Finally, overall quality of life satisfaction significantly influenced the residents’ ultimate SSTD. Theoretical contributions of this research along with practical implications are also discussed.
1. Andereck, K. L. & Nyaupane, G. P. (2011). Exploring the nature of tourism and quality of life perceptions among residents. Journal of Travel Research.
2. Andereck, K. L., Valentine, K. M., Knopf, R. C. & Vogt, C. A. (2005). Residents’ perceptions of community tourism impacts. Annals of tourism research, 32, 1056-1076.
3. Andereck, K. L., Valentine, K. M., Vogt, C. A. & Knopf, R. C. (2007). A cross-cultural analysis of tourism and quality of life perceptions. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15, 483-502.
4. Andereck, K. L. & Vogt, C. A. (2000). The relationship between residents’ attitudes toward tourism and tourism development options. Journal of Travel research, 39, 27-36.
5. Androniceanu, A. (2017). Hospital management based on the relationship between doctors and patients. Administratie si Management Public, 29, 41-53.
6. Ap, J. (1992). Residents' perceptions on tourism impacts. Annals of tourism Research, 19, 665-690.
7. Aref, F. (2011). The effects of tourism on quality of life: A Case Study of Shiraz, Iran. Life Science Journal, 8, 26-30.
8. Assante, L. M., Wen, H. I., Lottig, K. & Hotels, S. (2010). An empirical assessment of residents’ attitudes for sustainable tourism development: a case study of O ‘ahu, Hawai‘i. Journal of Sustainability and Green Business, 2, 27.
9. Butler, R.W. (1999). Sustainable tourism: A state of the art review. Tourism Geographies, 1(1), 7–25.
10. Chen, C.-F. & Chen, P.-C. (2010). Resident attitudes toward heritage tourism development. Tourism Geographies, 12, 525-545.
11. Croes, R. (2012). Assessing tourism development from Sen’s capability approach. Journal of Travel Research, 51, 542-554.
12. Fallon, L. D., & Kriwoken, L. K. (2003). Community involvement in tourism infrastructure: the case of the Strahan Visitor Centre, Tasmania. Tourism Management, 24, 289e308.
13. Gu, H. & Ryan, C. (2008). Place attachment, identity and community impacts of tourism—the case of a Beijing hutong. Tourism management, 29, 637-647.
14. Gursoy, D., Chi, C. G. & Dyer, P. (2009). An examination of locals’ attitudes. Annals of Tourism Research, 36, 723-726.
15. Gursoy, D., Chi, C. G. & Dyer, P. (2010). Locals' attitudes toward mass and alternative tourism: The case of Sunshine Coast, Australia. Journal of Travel Research.
16. Gursoy, D. & Rutherford, D. G. (2004). Host attitudes toward tourism: An improved structural model. Annals of Tourism Research, 31, 495-516.
17. Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., Anderson, R. & Tatham, R. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
18. Hanafiah, M. H., Jamaluddin, M. R. & Zulkifly, M. I. (2013). Local Community Attitude and Support towards Tourism Development in Tioman Island, Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 105, 792-800.
19. Homans, G. C. (1961). Social behavior: Its elementary forms. Wiley Publisher, 63, 6.
20. Huong, P. M. & Lee, J.-H. (2017). Finding important factors affecting local residents’ support for tourism development in Ba Be National Park, Vietnam. Forest Science and Technology, 13, 126-132.
21. Irwana Omar, S., Ghapar Othman, A. & Mohamed, B. (2014). The tourism life cycle: an overview of Langkawi Island, Malaysia. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 8, 272-289.
22. Istvan O. Egresi & Fatih Kara (2016). Residents’ attitudes to tourists visiting their mosques: a case study from Istanbul, Turkey, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 1747-7654.
23. Jeon, M. M., Kang, M. M. & Desmarais, E. (2014). Residents’ perceived quality of life in a cultural-heritage tourism destination. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 1-19.
24. Jurowski, C., Uysal, M. & Williams, D. R. (1997). A theoretical analysis of host community resident reactions to tourism. Journal of travel research, 36, 3-11.
25. Kayat, K. (2002). Power, social exchanges and tourism in Langkawi: Rethinking resident perceptions. International Journal of Tourism Research, 4 (3), 171-191.
26. Kibicho, W. (2004). Community tourism: A lesson from Kenya’s coastal region. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10, 33-42.
27. Kim, K. (2002). The effects of tourism impacts upon quality of life of residents in the community. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
28. Kim, K., Uysal, M. & Sirgy, M. J. (2013). How does tourism in a community impact the quality of life of community residents? Tourism Management, 36, 527-540.
29. Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling, Guilford press.
30. Ko, D.-W. & Stewart, W. P. (2002). A structural equation model of residents’ attitudes for tourism development. Tourism management, 23, 521-530.
31. Kot, S. (2018). Sustainable supply chain management in small and medium enterprises. Sustainability, 10 (4), art. no. 1143
32. Lee, T. H. (2013). Influence analysis of community resident support for sustainable tourism development. Tourism Management, 34, 37-46.
33. Luekveerawattana, R. (2018). Key factors affecting of tourists’ decisions to stay at environmental friendly hotels. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 17 (2), 148-157.
34. Marzuki, A. (2008). Decision making and community participation: A case study of the tourism industry in Langkawi. Turizam: znanstveno-stručničasopis, 56, 227-241.
35. Marzuki, A. (2011). Resident attitudes towards impacts from tourism development in Langkawi Islands, Malaysia. World Applied Sciences Journal, 12, 25-34.
36. McGehee, N. G. & Andereck, K. L. (2004). Factors predicting rural residents’ support of tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 43, 131-140.
37. Mihalic, T., Segota, T., KnezevicCvelbar, L. & Kuscer, K. (2016). The influence of the political environment and destination governance on sustainable tourism development: a study of Bled, Slovenia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24, 1489-1505.
38. Mowforth, and M. Munt. (1998). Tourism and sustainability: new tourism in the Third World. London, Routledge.
39. Nawijn, J. & Mitas, O. (2012). Resident attitudes to tourism and their effect on subjective well-being: The case of Palma de Mallorca. Journal of Travel Research, 51, 531-541.
40. Neal, J. D., Sirgy, M. J. & Uysal, M. (1999). The role of satisfaction with leisure travel/tourism services and experience in satisfaction with leisure life and overall life. Journal of Business Research, 44, 153-163.
41. Northcote, J. & Macbeth, J. (2005). Limitations of Resident Perception Surveys for Understanding Tourism Social Impacts The Need for Triangulation. Tourism Recreation Research, 30, 43-54.
42. Nicholas, L. N., Thapa, B. & Ko, Y. J. (2009). Residents’ perspective of a world heritage site: The pitons management area, St. Lucia. Annals of Tourism Research, 36, 390-412.
43. Niemczyk, A. (2015), Family Decisions on the Tourist Market, Economics and Sociology, Vol. 8, No 3, pp. 272-283. DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X.2015/8-3/19
44. Nunkoo, R. & Gursoy, D. (2012). Residents‘ support for tourism: An identity perspective. Annals of Tourism Research, 39, 243-268.
45. Nunkoo, R. & Ramkissoon, H. (2011a). Developing a community support model for tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 38, 964-988.
46. Nunkoo, R. & Ramkissoon, H. (2011b). Residents’ satisfaction with community attributes and support for tourism. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 35, 171-190.
47. Nunkoo, R. & Ramkissoon, H. (2012). Power, trust, social exchange and community support. Annals of Tourism Research, 39, 997-1023.
48. Nunkoo, R., & So, K. K. F. (2016). Residents’ support for tourism: Testing alternative structural models. Journal of Travel Research, 55, 847-861.
49. Pejabat Daerah Langkawi (2011). Penduduk. Retrieved from http://pdlangkawi.blogspot.com/2011/03/penduduk.html.
50. Perdue, R. R., Long, P. T. and Allen, L. (1990). Resident support for tourism development. Annals of Tourism Research, 17, 586-599.
51. Perdue, R. R., Long, P. T. and Kang, Y. S. (1999). Boomtown tourism and resident quality of life: The marketing of gaming to host community residents. Journal of Business Research, 44, 165-177.
52. Pjerotic, L. (2017). Stakeholder cooperation in implementation of the sustainable development concept: Montenegrin tourist destinations. Journal of International Studies, 10(2), 148-157. doi:10.14254/2071-8330.2017/10-2/11
53. Puczko, L. & Ratz, T. (2000). Tourist and resident perceptions of the physical impacts of tourism at Lake Balaton, Hungary: Issues for sustainable tourism management. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8, 458-478.
54. Ribeiro, M. A., Valle, P. O. d. & Silva, J. A. (2013). Residents’ attitudes towards tourism development in Cape Verde Islands. Tourism Geographies, 15, 654-679.
55. Ritchie, B. W., & Inkari, M. (2006). Host community attitudes toward tourism and cultural tourism development: The case of the Lewes District, Southern England. International Journal of Tourism Research, 8(1), 27–44.
56. Shengrong Chen, Suosheng Wang & Honggang Xu (2017). Influence of Place Identity on Residents’ Attitudes to Dark Tourism, Journal of China Tourism Research, 13, 338-356.
57. Shuaibu, M., & Oladayo, P. (2016). Determinants of human capital development in Africa: a panel data analysis. Oeconomia Copernicana, 7(4), 523-549. https://doi.org/10.12775/OeC.2016.030.
58. Jun, SH., Pongsata, P., & Noh J. (2016). An Examination of Residents’ Support for Tourism Development in Thailand". Tourism Travel and Research Association: Advancing Tourism Research Globally, 15.
59. Sirgy, M. J. & Lee, D.-J. (2006). Macro measures of consumer well-being (CWB): a critical analysis and a research agenda. Journal of Macromarketing, 26, 27-44.
60. Strielkowski, W. (2018). Heritage, screen and literary tourism. Tourism Management, 69, 537-537. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2018.07.004
61. Strielkowski, W. (2017). Promoting Tourism Destination through Film-Induced Tourism: The Case of Japan. Market-Trziste, 29(2), 193-203. doi:10.22598/mt/2017.29.2.193
62. Streimikiene, D., & Bilan, Y. (2015). Review of rural tourism development theories. Transformations in Business & Economics, 14(2), 21-34.
63. Strzelecka, M., Boley, B. B. & Strzelecka, C. (2017). Empowerment and resident support for tourism in rural Central and Eastern Europe (CEE): the case of Pomerania, Poland. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25, 554-572.
64. Stylidis, D. & Terzidou, M. (2014). Tourism and the economic crisis in Kavala, Greece. Annals of Tourism Research, 44, 210-226.
65. Stylidis, D., Biran, A., Sit, J. & Szivas, E. M. (2014). Residents' support for tourism development: The role of residents' place image and perceived tourism impacts. Tourism Management, 45, 260-274.
66. Suntikul, W., Pratt, S., I Kuan, W., Wong, C. I., Chan, C. C., Choi, W. L. & Chong, O. F. (2016). Impacts of tourism on the quality of life of local residents in Hue, Vietnam. Anatolia, 27, 405-420.
67. Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S. & Osterlind, S. J. (2001). Using multivariate statistics.
68. Taherdoost, H. (2016). Sampling methods in research methodology; How to choose a sampling technique for research. International Journal of Academic Research in Management, 5, 18-27.
69. Tovar, C., & Lockwood, M. (2008). Social impacts of tourism: An Australian regional case study. International Journal of Tourism Research, 10(4), 365–378.
70. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Tourism Organisation (WTO). (2005). Making tourism more sustainable: A guide for policymakers.
71. Uysal, M., Perdue, R. & Sirgy, M. J. (2012). Handbook of tourism and quality-of-life research: Enhancing the lives of tourists and residents of host communities. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.
72. Vargas-Sanchez, A., de los Angeles Plaza-Mejia, M. & Porras-Bueno, N. (2009). Understanding residents' attitudes toward the development of industrial tourism in a former mining community. Journal of Travel Research, 47, 373-387.
73. Victoria M. Waligo, & J. C., Rebecca Hawkins (2013). Implementing sustainable tourism: A multi-stakeholder involvement management framework. Tourism management, 36, 342-353.
74. Wang, Y. A. & Pfister, R. E. (2008). Residents' attitudes toward tourism and perceived personal benefits in a rural community. Journal of Travel Research, 47, 84-93.
75. Woo, E., Kim, H. & Uysal, M. (2014). A measure of quality of life in elderly tourists. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 1-18.
76. Woo, E., Kim, H. & Uysal, M. (2015). Life satisfaction and support for tourism development. Annals of Tourism Research, 50, 84-97.
77. Yu, C.-P. S., Chancellor, H. C. & Cole, S. T. (2011). Examining the Effects of Tourism Impacts on Resident Quality of Life. International Journal of Tourism Sciences, 11, 161-186.
78. Zhang, Y., Cole, S. T. & Chancellor, C. H. (2013). Residents' preferences for involvement in tourism development and influences from individual profiles. Tourism Planning & Development, 10, 267-284.