|Title:||Motherhood and eldercare penalties. Evidence from Poland|
Vol. 13, No 3, 2020
Published date: 09-2020 (print) / 09-2020 (online)
Economics & Sociology
ISSN: 2071-789X, eISSN: 2306-3459
University of Lodz
University of Johannesburg
|Keywords:||labor market, wages, worktime, motherhood penalty, eldercare penal|
|JEL classification:||J16, J21, J31|
Care providers face many constraints which limit their ability to compete on labor market. Therefore, they either give up their jobs, or limit their work time, or they look for a caregiver’s friendly job which usually assumes low wages. The negative effect of providing care on caregiver’s wages is called care penalty. In developed countries, with relatively high percentage of female employees and population aged 65 and above, governments formulate a social policy which is to help individuals and households providing care, and to keep labor force supply on a certain level. The solutions essentially differ among states. This study aims to find out the evidence of care penalty among Polish employees. Investigation is provided applying econometric analysis using the microdata originated from the Polish Labour Force Survey. The presented research proves that motherhood and eldercare penalties exist in Poland and mostly women are penalized. This is evidenced by the negative and significant impact of the variables describing the number of unemployed children and elderly persons on monthly salaries and working hours in the models estimated for female employees, and the insignificant influence of these variables in the models estimated for male employees.
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