Economics & Sociology

ISSN: 2071-789X eISSN: 2306-3459 DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X
Index PUBMS: f5512f57-a601-11e7-8f0e-080027f4daa0
Article information
Title: Motherhood and eldercare penalties. Evidence from Poland
Issue: Vol. 13, No 3, 2020
Published date: 09-2020 (print) / 09-2020 (online)
Journal: Economics & Sociology
ISSN: 2071-789X, eISSN: 2306-3459
Authors: Dorota Witkowska
University of Lodz

Krzysztof Kompa
University of Johannesburg
Keywords: labor market, wages, worktime, motherhood penalty, eldercare penal
DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X.2020/13-3/1
Index PUBMS: 914c75f3-0d29-11eb-a151-fa163e0fa1a0
Language: English
Pages: 11-26 (16)
JEL classification: J16, J21, J31

Care providers face many constraints which limit their ability to compete on labor market. Therefore, they either give up their jobs, or limit their work time, or they look for a caregiver’s friendly job which usually assumes low wages. The negative effect of providing care on caregiver’s wages is called care penalty. In developed countries, with relatively high percentage of female employees and population aged 65 and above, governments formulate a social policy which is to help individuals and households providing care, and to keep labor force supply on a certain level. The solutions essentially differ among states. This study aims to find out the evidence of care penalty among Polish employees. Investigation is provided applying econometric analysis using the microdata originated from the Polish Labour Force Survey. The presented research proves that motherhood and eldercare penalties exist in Poland and mostly women are penalized. This is evidenced by the negative and significant impact of the variables describing the number of unemployed children and elderly persons on monthly salaries and working hours in the models estimated for female employees, and the insignificant influence of these variables in the models estimated for male employees.


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