|Title:||Job satisfaction of teachers from public and private sector universities in Lahore, Pakistan: A comparative study|
Vol. 11, No 4, 2018
Published date: 12-2018 (print) / 12-2018 (online)
Economics & Sociology
ISSN: 2071-789X, eISSN: 2306-3459
University of Lahore
University of Lahore
María Luz Cacheiro-González
Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid
|Keywords:||Job Satisfaction, Higher Education Institutions, Teachers, Private Universities, Public Universities, Pakistan|
|JEL classification:||I23, J28|
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Job Satisfaction of teachers in Higher Education Institutions from the Public and Private Sector in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. A comparative study has been carried out, based on the survey method using a quantitative approach. Data were collected from a questionnaire completed by 345 Teachers (203 from public and 142 from private sector), from 10 universities (5 public and 5 private), using convenience sampling. The results of the Chi-Squared independence hypothesis test reveal statistically significant differences in degree of agreement for some of the statements between the Public and Private University Teachers on the Job Satisfaction scale (salary, promotion, benefits, coworkers, type of work done, and communication within the organization). Suggestions have been proposed for educational managers to consider professional and personal perceptions related to Job Satisfaction based on Teacher’s needs and perceptions.
1. Adhikari, K., & Barbhuiya, J. H. (2016). Mapping job satisfaction of central university teachers. Splint International Journal of Professionals, 3(11), 45-51.
2. Ahluwalia, A.K. & Preet, K. (2017). Work Motivation, Organizational Commitment and Locus of Control vis-a-vis Work Experience amongst University Teachers. SIBM Pune Research Journal, 14, 26-33. Retrieved from: http://samvad.sibmpune.edu.in/index.php/samva
3. Ahmad, A., Bibi, P., & Majid, A. (2017). The impact of training & development and transformational leadership over organizational commitment among academic staff in public tertiary institutions: The buffering role of coworker support. International Journa
4. Ali, A. & Zafar, S. (2006). Antecedents and Consequences of Organizational Commitment Among Pakistani University Teachers. Applied H.R.M. Research, 11(1), 39-64. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e161/535a799a2693d94b0497d7045 b0518a10bef.p
5. Alonderiene, R., & Majauskaite, M. (2016). Leadership style and Job Satisfaction in higher education institutions. International Journal of Educational Management, 30(1), 140-164. doi:10.1108/IJEM-08-2014-0106
6. Amin, M., Shah, S., & Tatlah, I. A. (2013). Impact of Principals/Directors' Leadership Styles on Job Satisfaction of the Faculty Members: Perceptions of the Faculty Members in a Public University of Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of Research & Reflections in E
7. Amjad, Z., Sabri, P., Ilyas, M., & Hameed, A. (2015). Informal relationships at workplace and employee performance: A study of employee’s private higher education sector. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 9(1), 303-321.
8. Asrar-ul-Haq, M., Kuchinke, K.P., &, Iqbal, A. (2017). The relationship between corporate social responsibility, Job Satisfaction, and organizational commitment: Case of Pakistani higher education. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 2352-2363. doi:10.101
9. Baron, A.R. & Greenberg, J. (2003). Organizational Behavior in Organization: Understanding and managing the human side of work. Canada: Prentice Hall.
10. Belias, D., & Koustelios, A. (2014). Organizational Culture and job satisfaction: A review. International Review of Management and Marketing, 4(2), 132-149.
11. Bendermacher, G., Egbrink, M., Wolfhagen, I., Leppink, J. & Dolmans, D. (2017). Reinforcing pillars for quality culture development: a path analytic model. Studies in Higher Education, 1-21. doi:10.1080/03075079.2017.1393060
12. Bendermacher, G., Egbrink, M., Wolfhagen, I. & Dolmans, D. (2017). Unravelling quality culture in higher education: a realist review. Higher Education, 73(1), 39-60. doi:10.1007/s10734-015-9979-2
13. Bhatti, K., Cheema, F., Shaikh, A., Syed, N. A., & Bashir, R. (2014). Faceted and overall job satisfaction among university teachers: A case study of Laar Campus, Sindh University, Pakistan. Global Management Journal for Academic & Corporate Studies, 4(2)
14. Blix, A., Cruise, R., Mitchell, B., & Blix, G. (1994). Occupational stress among university Teachers. Educational research, 36(2), 157-169. doi:10.1080/0013188940360205
15. Carless, D. (2009). Trust, distrust and their impact on assessment reform. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 34, 79-89. doi:10.1080/02602930801895786
16. Catano, V. M., Darr, W., & Campbell, C. A. (2007). Performance appraisal of behavior based competencies: A reliable and valid procedure. Personnel Psychology, 60(1), 201-230
17. Chauhan, A., Goel, M., & Arora, R. G. (2018). Motivation among Higher Education Academicians: A Factor Analytical Approach. ANVESHAK-International Journal of Management, 7(1), 172-189. doi:10.15410/aijm/2018/v7i1/119884
18. Chipunza, C., & Malo, B. (2017). Organizational Culture and Job Satisfaction among academic professionals at a South African University of Technology. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 15(2), 148-161. doi:10.21511/ppm.15(2).2017.14
19. Chughtai, A. (2003). A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction Among Public and Private Sector College/University Teachers in Lahore. Lahore Journal of Economics, 8(1), 91-118. Retrieved from: http://188.8.131.52/JOURNAL/vol8-No1/Amir-final.pdf
20. Faizal, M. (2005). Institutionalization of performance appraisal system: a case study of the Maldivian public service. MS Thesis, University of Bergen, Norway.
21. Flowers, V.S. & Hughes, Ch. L. (1973). Why Employees Stay. Harvard Business Review, 7, 1-20. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/1973/07/why-employees-stay.
22. Green, J. (2000). Job Satisfaction of community college chairpersons. Unpublished PhD thesis Virginia Tech and State University.
23. Hashim, M., Khattak, M.A., & Kee, D. (2016). Impact of Servant Leadership on Job Satisfaction: A Study of Teaching Faculty in Universities of Peshawar. Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences, Special Issue, AIC 2016, 312-320.
24. Hina, Q., Zamir, Sh., & Nudrat, S. (2014). Impact of employee benefits on Job Satisfaction of Teachers at higher level. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(7), 122-129.
25. Khalid, S., Irshad, M.Z. & Mahmood, B. (2012). Job Satisfaction among academic staff: A comparative analysis between public and private sector universities of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(1), 126-136.
26. Khurram, S. (2009). Perceived organizational support, antecedents and consequences proposing and testing a model in a public sector university of Pakistan. South Asian Journal of Management, 16(1), 7-26.
27. Lankveld, T., Schoonenboom, J., Volman, M., Croiset, G. & Beishuizen, J. (2017). Developing a teacher identity in the university context: a systematic review of the literature. Higher Education Research & Development, 36(2), 325-342. doi:10.1080/07294360.
28. Laschinger, H. (2001). The impact of workplace commitment, organizational trust on staff nurses’ work satisfaction and organizational commitment. Health Care Management Review, 26(3), 7-24.
29. Malik, N.Q., Björkqvist, K., & Österman, K. (2017). Factors Associated with Occupational Stress among University Teachers in Pakistan and Finland. Journal of Educational, Health and Community Psychology, 6(2), 1-14.
30. Masum, A., Azad, A., & Beh, L. (2015). Determinants of academics' Job Satisfaction: Empirical evidence from private universities in Bangladesh: E0117834. PLoS One, 10(2). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117834
31. Mathur, A., & Mehta, A. (2015). Factors affecting job satisfaction among employees of higher education: A case study. Journal of Strategic Human Resource Management, 4(1), 49-64. doi:10.21863/jshrm/2015.4.1.006
32. Meyers, L. C., Gamst, G., & Guarino, A. J. (2013). Performing data analysis using IBM SPSS. Hoboken, New Jersey: Willey.
33. Mudrak, J., Zabrodska, K., Kveton, P., Jelinek, M., Blatny, M., Solcova, I., & Machovcova, K. (2018). Occupational well-being among university faculty: A job demands-resources model. Research in Higher Education, 59(3), 325-348. doi:10.1007/s11162-017-946
34. Nadim, M., Chaudhry, M. S., Kalyar, M. N., & Riaz, T. (2012). Effects of motivational factors on teachers' job satisfaction: A study on public sector degree colleges of Punjab, Pakistan. The Journal of Commerce, 4(4), 25-32.
35. Nas, Z. (2016). The effects of personal determinants on Job Satisfaction of public and private universities' academicians in Pakistan. City University Research Journal, 6(2), 217-228. Retrieved from: http://www.cityuniversity.edu.pk/curj/Journals/Journal/
36. Nawab, S., & Bhatti, K. K. (2011). Influence of employee compensation on organizational commitment and job satisfaction: A case study of educational sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(8), 25-32. Retrieved from: htt
37. Oshagbemi, T. (1997). Job Satisfaction and dissatisfaction in Higher Education. Education + Training, 39(9), 354-359. doi:10.1108/00400919710192395
38. Oshagbemi, T. (2000). Correlates of pay satisfaction in higher education. International Journal of Educational Management, 14(1), 31-39. doi:10.1108/09513540010310387
39. Pan, B., Shen, X., Liu, L., Yang, Y., & Wang, L. (2015). Factors associated with job satisfaction among university teachers in northeastern region of China: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(10)
40. Rahman, W. (2012). The Relationship of Attitudinal and Behavioural Outcomes with Employee Development in the Context of Performance Appraisal in Public Universities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. PhD Thesis, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad.
41. Rahman, W., Rahman, H., & Ali, F. (2015). Interrelationship of employee development, Organizational commitment, Job Satisfaction and their impact on turnover intentions. City University Research Journal, 5(2), 301-314.
42. Rasheed, M. I., Humayon, A. A., Awan, U., & Ahmed, A. U. D. (2016). Factors affecting teachers’ motivation: An HRM challenge for public sector higher educational institutions of Pakistan (HEIs). International Journal of Educational Management, 30(1), 101-
43. Riketta, M. (2002). Attitudinal organizational commitment and job performance: a meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 257-66.
44. Sabri, P., Ilyas, M., & Amjad, Z. (2011). Organizational Culture and Its Impact on the Job Satisfaction of the University Teachers of Lahore. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(24), 121-128. Retrieved from: http://ijbssnet.com/journal
45. Said, A., Rasdi, R., Samah, B., Silong, A., & Sulaiman, S. (2015). A career success model for academics at Malaysian research universities. European Journal of Training and Development, 39(9), 815-835.
46. Shabbir, M., & Khalid, M. I. (2016). Humanizing research culture system through quality assurance practices in the universities of Pakistan. Bulletin of Education and Research, 38(1), 235-250. Retrieved from: http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/ier/PDF-FILES/
47. Sheikh, L. (2017). Antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment of teachers: case of University of the Punjab. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, 55(2), 363-386.
48. Silverthorne, C. (2004). The impact of Organizational Culture and person‐organization fit on organizational commitment and job satisfaction in Taiwan. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25(7), 592-599. doi:10.1108/01437730410561477
49. Sönmezer, M. & Eryaman, M. (2008). Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction Level of Public and Private School Teachers. Journal of theory and practice in education, 4(2), 189-212.
50. Spector, P. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences. London: Sage publications.
51. Stankovska, G., Angelkoska, S., Osmani, F., & Grncarovska, S. (2017). Job Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Academic Staff in Higher Education. 15th Annual International Conference of the Bulgarian Comparative Education Society. Bulgaria, Jun 2017.
52. Tahseen, N. (2015). Work-related stress among teacher-educators: Evidence from Punjab. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 30(2), 357.
53. Viseu, J., Neves, S., Rus, C., Canavarro, J., & Pereira, J. (2016). Relationship Between Teacher motivation and organizational variables: A Literature review. Paideía, 26(63), 111-120. doi:10.1590/1982-43272663201613