Economics & Sociology

ISSN: 2071-789X eISSN: 2306-3459 DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X
Index PUBMS: f5512f57-a601-11e7-8f0e-080027f4daa0
Article information
Title: Growing old at own home: A study among pre-elderly adults in Peninsular Malaysia
Issue: Vol. 12, No 1, 2019
Published date: 03-2019 (print) / 03-2019 (online)
Journal: Economics & Sociology
ISSN: 2071-789X, eISSN: 2306-3459
Authors: Shamzaeffa Samsudin
Universiti Utara Malaysia

Norehan Abdullah
Universiti Utara Malaysia

Nur Syakiran Akmal Ismail
Universiti Utara Malaysia

Kalthun Hassan
Universiti Utara Malaysia

Ummu Atiyah Ahmad
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Keywords: Living arrangement, ageing population, pre-elderly adults
DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X.2019/12-1/6
Index PUBMS: b653d4e5-5d48-11e9-8b68-fa163e6feac6
Language: English
Pages: 115-124 (10)
JEL classification: J14
We are grateful for the financial support from Universiti Utara Malaysia (PBIT: S/O Code: 12312) and the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia for the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS: S/O code: 13063).

The study of changes and choices of living arrangements among older persons has been a key element of demography and sociology of the family. While many studies focus on the elderly respondents in understanding this matter, our aim is to seek answers from the pre-elderly adults concerning their preferred old-age living arrangements and analyse the factors affecting the choice. A multistage sampling technique was used in selecting the respondents aged 40 to 59 years from Peninsular Malaysia. The total of 1,153 respondents were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire and it was found that 83.8% of the respondents prefer growing old in their own homes. From the probit model, it suggests that age and household size have negatively influenced the likelihood of the elderly to live in their own homes while being a male has the opposite effect. Those who are married or divorced, at work, earn more than RM15,000 a month and have formal education are more likely to prefer to grow old in their own homes as compared to other alternatives. Understand the choices of the pre-elderly groups are deemed vital for early intervention. A comprehensive support system is needed to endorse the popular choice of independent living at old age.


1. Alavi, K., Sail, R. M., Idris, K., Samah, A. A., & Omar, M. (2011). Living arrangement preference and family relationship expectation of elderly parents. In Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities (Vol. 19, pp. 65–73).

2. Bishop, C. E. (1986). Living Arrangement Choices of Elderly Singles: Effects of Income and Disability. Health Care Financing Review, 7(3), 65–73. [pii]

3. Brown, J. W., Liang, J., Krause, N., Akiyama, H., Sugisawa, H., & Fukaya, T. (2002). Transitions in Living Arrangements among Elders in Japan: Does Health make a Difference? Journal of Gerontology, 57B(4), S209–S220.

4. Chen, Y.-J., & Chen, C.-Y. (2012). Living Arrangement Preferences of Elderly People in Taiwan as Affected by Family Resources and Social Participation. Journal of Family History, 37(4), 381–394.

5. Cheng, L., Liu, H., Zhang, Y., & Zhao, Z. (2018). The heterogeneous impact of pension income on elderly living arrangements: evidence from China’s new rural pension scheme. Journal of Population Economics.

6. Chyi, H., & Mao, S. (2012). The Determinants of Happiness of China’s Elderly Population. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13(1), 167–185.

7. Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOS). (2016). Population Projection, Malaysia, 2010-2040. Retrieved September 8, 2017, from

8. Department of Statistics Malaysia (DoSM). (2018). Selected demographic in dicators Malaysia, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018, from

9. Hoi, L. V, Thang, P., & Lindholm, L. (2011). Elderly care in daily living in rural Vietnam: Need and its socioeconomic determinants. BMC Geriatrics, 11(1), 81.

10. Kao, Y. H., Chang, L. C., Huang, W. F., Tsai, Y. W., & Chen, L. K. (2013). Health Characteristics of Older People Who Rotationally Live With Families: A Nationwide Survey. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 14(5), 331–335. https://doi.

11. Kim, C. S., & Rhee, K. O. (1997). Variations in preferred living arrangements among Korean elderly parents. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 12(2), 189–202. Retrieved from

12. Knodel, J., & Ofstedal, M. B. (2003). Gender and Aging in the Developing World: Where Are the Men? Population and Development Review, 29(4), 677–698.

13. Lai, D. W. L. (2005). Cultural Factors and Preferred Living Arrangement of Aging Chinese Canadians. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 19(2), 71–86.

14. Martikainen, P., Nihtilä, E., & Moustgaard, H. (2008). The effects of socioeconomic status and health on transitions in living arrangements and mortality: a longitudinal analysis of elderly Finnish men and women from 1997 to 2002. The Journals of Gerontol

15. Mohd, S., Senadjki, A., & Mansor, N. (2017). Living Arrangements of Elderly: Evidence from Household Income Expenditure Survey. Journal of Population Ageing.

16. Munsur, A. M., Tareque, I., & Rahman, K. M. (2010). Determinants of Living Arrangements , Health Status and Abuse among Elderly Women : A Study of Rural Naogaon District , Bangladesh. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 11(4), 162–176. Retrieved fro

17. Mutchler, J. E., Lyu, J., Xu, P., & Burr, J. A. (2016). Is Cost of Living Related to Living Alone Among Older Persons? Evidence From the Elder Economic Security Standard Index. Journal of Family Issues, 1.

18. Samantha, T., Chen, F., & Vanneman, R. (2015). Living Arrangements and Health of Older Adults in India. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 70(6), 937–47.

19. Sereny, M. (2011). Living Arrangements of Older Adults in China: The Interplay Among Preferences, Realities, and Health. Research on Aging, 33(2), 172–204.

20. Wilmoth, J. M. (1998). Living Arrangement Transitions Among America’s Older Adults. The Gerontologist, 38(4), 434–444.

21. Zimmer, Z. (2005). Health and Living Arrangement Transitions Among China’s Oldest-Old. Research on Aging, 27(5), 526–555.