|Title:||Entrepreneurs’ Networks at Rural Market: Developing a Creative Village in the Yamagata Prefecture, Japan|
Vol. 10, No 3, 2017
Published date: 10-2017 (print) / 10-2017 (online)
Economics & Sociology
ISSN: 2071-789X, eISSN: 2306-3459
|Keywords:||Networks of entrepreneurs, Rural market, Depopulation, Creative Village, Rural revitalization in Japan|
|JEL classification:||L26, M30, R10|
Entrepreneurs of small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) are often expected to boost rural revitalization. However, due to the effects of globalization and regional disparities, in rural Japan entrepreneurs find few consumers and other entrepreneurs due to depopulation of many areas. This study asks how entrepreneurs build and maintain business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B) networks in a rural Yamagata prefecture. The author performed a semi-structured interview with more than 20 entrepreneurs of SMEs in this area during 2014-2015, with special attention being paid to their networking with consumers and other entrepreneurs. The author found that the entrepreneurs invited outside consumers from urban areas, introduced their consumers to other entrepreneurs, used local media, and participated in rural revitalization programs to help local residents discover the value of their products. Different entrepreneurs cooperated together to improve their businesses and increase the number of regular consumers. They also tried to increase the number of cooperative entrepreneurs as they hoped for the growth of other entrepreneurial businesses and business aggregation. Consequently, such businesses contributed to rural revitalization in the sense that the residents as a whole could enjoy the local more developed market.
1. Bock, B. B. (2004). Fitting in and multi-tasking: Dutch farm women's strategies in rural entrepreneurship. Sociologia Ruralis, 44, 245-260.
2. Brodie, R. J., Ilic, A., Juric, B., Hollebeek, L. (2013). Consumer engagement in a virtual brand community: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Business Research, 66, 105-114.
3. Burt, R. S. (1992). Structural holes: The social structure of competition. Harvard University Press.
4. Burt, R. S. (2007). Brokerage and Closure: An Introduction to Social Capital (Clarendon Lectures in Management Studies). Oxford University Press.
5. Chiesi, A. M. (2014). Interpersonal networking and business resilience: How immigrants in small business face the crisis in Italy. European Sociological Review, 30, 457-469.
6. Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, S95-S120.
7. Corsaro, D. (2014). The emergent role of value representation in managing business relationships. Industrial Marketing Management, 43, 985-995.
8. Ezcurra, R., Rodríguez-Pose, A. (2013). Does economic globalization affect regional inequality? a cross-country analysis. World Development, 52, 92-103.
9. Feldmann, C., Hamm, U. (2015). Consumers’ perceptions and preferences for local food: A review. Food Quality and Preference, 40, 152-164.
10. Florida, R. (2014). The Rise of the Creative Class–Revisited: Revised and Expanded. Basic books.
11. Fujita, M., Krugman, P. R., Venables, A. J. (1999). The Spatial Economy: Cities, Regions and International Trade. Wiley Online Library.
12. Gherardi, S. (2015). Authoring the female entrepreneur while talking the discourse of work-family life balance. International Small Business Journal, 33, 649-666.
13. Granovetter, M. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78, 1360-1380.
14. Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91, 481-510.
15. Haga, K. (2015). Innovation and entrepreneurship in aging societies: theoretical reflection and a case study from Kamikatsu, Japan. Journal of Innovation Economics & Management, 3, 119-141.
16. Haugh, H. M., Talwar, A. (2016). Linking social entrepreneurship and social change: The mediating role of empowerment. Journal of Business Ethics, 133, 643-658.
17. Horiuchi, S. (2012), Community creation by residents and tourists via Takachiho kagura in Japanese rural area. Sociology Mind, 2, 306-312.
18. Horiuchi, S. (2017). Coordinators bridge residents and artists in regional japan: a case study of the art proje, HANARART. International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies, 13, 1-22.
19. Horiuchi, S., Kanazawa, Y., Suzuki, T., Takikawa, H. (2013). Who gain resources from which social capital? a mathematical review. In: Social Capital: Theory, Measurement and Outcome. Nova Publisher, pp. 3-28.
20. Horiuchi, S., Takahashi, T. (2016). Globalization and regional revitalization in a local university of japan. In: Globalization: Economic, Political and Social Issues. Nova Publisher, pp. 149-159.
21. Huggins, R., Thompson, P. (2015). Entrepreneurship, innovation and regional growth: a network theory. Economics, 45, 103-128.
22. Hundt, C., Sternberg, R. (2016). Explaining new firm creation in Europe from a spatial and time perspective: A multilevel analysis based upon data of individuals, regions and countries. Papers in Regional Science, 95, 223-257.
23. Ishiguro, I. Yi, E., Sugiura, H., Yamaguchi, K. (2012). Toukyou ni deru wakamonotachi: shigoto, shakai kankei, chiikikan kakusa. Kyouto-shi: Mineruva Shobou.
24. Ismail, T. (2012). The development of entrepreneurial social competence and business network to improve competitive advantage and business performance of small medium sized enterprises: a case study of batik industry in Indonesia. Procedia-Social and Beha
25. Ito, M. (2015). Chiiki ni okeru danjo kyodo sankaku no kadai; yamagataken wo chushin ni. In: Tohokukoekibunkadaigaku Sogokenkyuronshu: Forum 21, pp. 25-37.
26. Jacobs, J. (1984). Cities and the Wealth of Nations. Random House.
27. Johnstone, H., Lionais, D. (2004). Depleted communities and community business entrepreneurship: revaluing space through place. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 16, 217-233.
28. Kalantaridis, C., Bika, Z. (2006a). Local embeddedness and rural entrepreneurship: case-study evidence from Cumbria, England. Environment and Planning A, 38, 1561-1579.
29. Kalantaridis, C., Bika, Z. (2006b). In-migrant entrepreneurship in rural England: beyond local embeddedness. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 18, 109-131.
30. Kidokoro, T., Kondo, S., Iwata, D., Fukuda, R. (2015). Study on the new perspectives of town centers of small to medium sized cities from the view point of regional innovation: Based on the interview surveys to enterprises in Ishinomaki city and Nagahama
31. Landry, C. (2000). The Creative City: A Toolkit for Urban Innovators. Earthscan.
32. Lessmann, C. (2014). Spatial inequality and development? Is there an inverted-u relationship? Journal of Development Economics, 106, 35-51.
33. Lindström, T., Polsa, P. (2016). Coopetition close to the customer? A case study of a small business network. Industrial Marketing Management, 53, 207-215.
34. Markusen, A. (2007). A consumption base theory of development: An application to the rural cultural economy. Agricultural and Resource Economic Review, 36, 9-23.
35. Marquis, C., Davis, G. F. (2009). Organizational mechanisms underlying positive community identity and reputation. In: Exploring Positive Identities and Organizations: Building a Theoretical and Research Foundation. pp. 461-478.
36. McKeever, E., Jack, S., Anderson, A. (2015). Embedded entrepreneurship in the creative re-construction of place. Journal of Business Venturing, 30, 50-65.
37. Newbery, R., Siwale, J., Henley, A. (2017). Rural entrepreneurship theory in the developing and developed world. The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 18, 3-4.
38. Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the Commons. Cambridge University Press.
39. Pato, M. L., Teixeira, A. A. (2014). Twenty years of rural entrepreneurship: a bibliometric survey. Sociologia Ruralis, 1-26.
40. Paul, K. C., Hamzah, A., Samah, B. A., Ismail, I. A., D’Silva, J. L. (2013). Development of rural herbal entrepreneurship in Malaysia. International Journal of Business and Management, 8, 95-100.
41. Portes, A. (1998). Social capital: Its origins and applications in modern sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 24, 1-24.
42. Putnam, R. D. (2001). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. Simon and Schuster.
43. Rausch, A. S. (2005). Local identity, cultural commodities, and development in rural japan: The potential as viewed by cultural producers and local residents. International Journal of Japanese Sociology, 14, 122-137.
44. Reed, D. (1999). Ethics, community development and not-for-profit business: The case of new dawn enterprises. International Journal of Social Economics, 26, 660-673.
45. Sasaki, M. (1997). Souzo Toshi no Keizaigaku. Keiso Shobo.
46. Sasaki, M. (2001). Souzo Toshi eno Chosen: Sangyo to Bunka no Ikiduku Machi e. Iwanami Shoten.
47. Sasaki, M., Kawaida, S., Hagiwara, T. (2014). Souzo Noson. Gekugei Shuppan sha.
48. Sassen, S. (2001). The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton University Press.
49. Sawano, K. (2012). Shakaiteki Kigyo wo Mezasu Noson Joseitachi: Chiiki no Ninaite toshiteno Noson Josei Kigyo. Tsukuba Shobo.
50. Sawano, K., Tabata, T. (2009). Network wo riyo shita kojinkeiei niyoru noson josei kigyoka no tenkai katei: Yamagataken shonai chiho wo chushin ni. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Meiji University, 59, 31-46.
51. Schoonjans, B., van Cauwenberge, P., van der Bauwhede, H. (2013). Formal business networking and SME growth. Small Business Economics, 41, 169-181.
52. Skopenko, N., Sagaydack, J. (2013). Specific features of development of ecological entrepreneurship in Ukraine. Economics and Sociology, 6, 28-38.
53. Strasiulis, N. (2017). The idea of the creative society and the development of creative industries. Economics and Sociology, 10, 217-226.
54. Tachibanaki, T., Urakawa, K. (2012). Nihon no chiikikan kakusa: toukyou ikkyoku shuuchuugata kara yatsugatake houshiki e. Toukyou: Nihonhyouronsha.
55. Takeda, Y., Kajikawa, Y., Sakata, I., Matsushima, K. (2008). An analysis of geographical agglomeration and modularized industrial networks in a regional cluster: A case study at Yamagata prefecture in japan. Technovation, 28, 531-539.
56. Tambunan, T. (2009). Women entrepreneurship in Asian developing countries: Their development and main constraints. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 1, 27-40.
57. Taniyama, T. (2014). Kaigai shijo sinshutsu wo keiki to suru hongoku jigyou no seicho kanousei. Akamon Management Review, 13, 53-76.
58. Tansho, T. (2007). Incubation managers support style and determinants of the business incubator performance: Insights from comparative analysis between “urban” and “region”. Keizai Kagaku Ronshu, 33, 135-165.
59. Tokyo Shoko Research L (2015). Survey on the ratio of company presidents. Retrieved September 25, 2017, from http://www.tsr-net.co.jp/news/analysis/20160706_01.html
60. Uusitalo, O., Oksanen, R. (2004). Ethical consumerism: a view from Finland. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 28, 214-221.
61. van Slyke, D. M., Newman, H. K. (2006). Venture philanthropy and social entrepreneurship in community development. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 16, 345-368.
62. Yamazaki, S. (2016). Machiya Kominka Saisei no Keizaigaku: Naze kono Tochi ni Ooku no Hitobito ga Tazunete Kurunoka. Suiyousha.
63. Yiu, D. W., Wan, W. P., Ng, F. W., Chen, X., Su, J. (2014). Sentimental drivers of social entrepreneurship: A study of china’s guangcai (glorious) program. Management and Organization Review, 10, 55-80.
64. Zahra, S. A., Gedajlovic, E., Neubaum, D. O., Shulman, J. M. (2009). A typology of social entrepreneurs: Motives, search processes and ethical challenges. Journal of Business Venturing, 24, 519-532.
65. Zumbusch, K., Scherer, R. (2013). Mobilizing enterprise for regional innovation policies: How to assure an active involvement of located enterprises in regional development. Economics and Sociology, 6, 13-27.