|Title:||Challenges associated with environmental protection in rural areas of Poland: Empirical studies’ results|
Vol. 13, No 1, 2020
Published date: 03-2020 (print) / 03-2020 (online)
Economics & Sociology
ISSN: 2071-789X, eISSN: 2306-3459
Wroclaw University of Economics and Business, Wrocław, Poland
|Keywords:||low-carbon economy, development challenges, rural areas, environmental protection, farmers' behaviors, Poland|
|JEL classification:||Q01, Q20, Q58|
|This study was conducted and financed in the framework of the research project “The state and prospects of the development of low-carbon agriculture in Poland and the behaviour of agricultural producers”, granted by the National Science Centre in Poland, program SONATA, grant No. 2016/21/D/HS4/00087.|
The paper focuses on important and topical issues of agricultural economy development within the paradigm of sustainable development and reorientation towards a low-carbon economy. The main purpose of this study is to identify the contemporary challenges in the field of environmental protection in rural areas of Poland. Specially designed survey of a large representative sample (random sampling) of Polish agricultural producers has been used. The study is based on the results of quantitative research (questionnaire surveys) carried out among 1101 agricultural holdings and a qualitative research carried out among 24 experts (professional agri-environmental advisors). The research shows that the main challenges in the investigated material and spatial scope include low-altitude emissions and the issues associated with waste sorting. There was a significant variation in responses, taking into account the locations of agricultural holdings as well as characteristics of the respondents and farms. Independent experts indicated and assessed environmental threats in rural areas and classified the activities and implementations in the scope of pro-environmental innovation that may reduce the negative impact of agriculture on the natural environment in rural areas of Poland.
1. Bachev, H. (2017). Sustainability level of Bulgarian farms. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 23(1), 1-13.
2. Bai, Y., Deng, X., Jiang, S., Zhao, Z., & Miao, Y. (2019). Relationship between climate change and low-carbon agricultural production: A case study in Hebei Province, China. Ecological Indicators, 105, 438-447.
3. Balsalobre-Lorente, D., Driha, O. M., Bekun, F. V., & Osundina, O. A. (2019). Do agricultural activities induce carbon emissions? The BRICS experience. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(24), 25218-25234.
4. Bański, J. (2018). Phases to the transformation of agriculture in Central Europe – Selected processes and their results, Agricultural Economics, 64, 546-553.
5. Barragán-Ocaña, A., & del Carmen del-Valle-Rivera, M. (2016). Rural development and environmental protection through the use of biofertilizers in agriculture: An alternative for underdeveloped countries?. Technology in Society, 46, 90-99.
6. Bayramoglu, Z., Oguz, C., Karakayaci, Z., & Arisoy, H. (2018). Identification of the income level needed for agricultural enterprises to achieve economic sustainability. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 31(1), 510-520.
7. Blades, L., Morgan, K., Douglas, R., Glover, S., De Rosa, M., Cromie, T., & Smyth, B. (2017). Circular biogas-based economy in a rural agricultural setting. Energy Procedia, 123, 89-96.
8. Cui, Z., Zhang, H., Chen, X., Zhang, C., Ma, W., Huang, C., Zhang, W., Mi, G., Miao, Y., Li, X., Gao. Q, Yang, J., Wang, Z., Ye, Y., Guo, S., Lu, J., Huang, J., Lv, S., Sun, Y., Liu, Y., Peng, X., Ren, J., Li, S., Deng, X., Shi, X., Zhang, Q., Yang, Z., T
9. Czekała, W., Lewicki, A., Pochwatka, P., Czekała, A., Wojcieszak, D., Jóźwiakowski, K., & Waliszewska, H. (2020). Digestate management in polish farms as an element of the nutrient cycle. Journal of Cleaner Production, 242, 118454.
10. D'Amato, D., Droste, N., Allen, B., Kettunen, M., Lähtinen, K., Korhonen, J., Leskinen, P., Matthies, B., D., & Toppinen, A. (2017). Green, circular, bio economy: A comparative analysis of sustainability avenues. Journal of Cleaner Production, 168, 716-73
11. de Moraes Sá, J. C., Lal, R., Cerri, C. C., Lorenz, K., Hungria, M., & de Faccio Carvalho, P. C. (2017). Low-carbon agriculture in South America to mitigate global climate change and advance food security. Environment International, 98, 102-112.
12. Dzikuć, M., Kułyk, P., Dzikuć, M., Urban, S., & Piwowar, A. (2019). Outline of Ecological and Economic Problems Associated with the Low Emission Reductions in the Lubuskie Voivodeship (Poland). Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 28(1), 1-8.
13. Firlej, K., Kowalska, K., & Piwowar, A. (2017). Competitiveness and innovation of the Polish food industry. Agricultural Economics, 63, 502-509.
14. Früh-Müller, A., Bach, M., Breuer, L., Hotes, S., Koellner, T., Krippes, C., & Wolters, V. (2019). The use of agri-environmental measures to address environmental pressures in Germany: Spatial mismatches and options for improvement. Land Use Policy, 84, 3
15. Giannakis, E., Kushta, J., Giannadaki, D., Georgiou, G. K., Bruggeman, A., & Lelieveld, J. (2019). Exploring the economy-wide effects of agriculture on air quality and health: Evidence from Europe. Science of The Total Environment, 663, 889-900.
16. Han, Z., Ye, C., Zhang, Y., Dan, Z., Zou, Z., Liu, D., & Shi, G. (2019). Characteristics and management modes of domestic waste in rural areas of developing countries: a case study of China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(9), 8485-8501.
17. He, K., Zhang, J., & Zeng, Y. (2019). Knowledge domain and emerging trends of agricultural waste management in the field of social science: A scientometric review. Science of The Total Environment, 670,236-244.
18. Hogarth, R. M. (2005). The challenge of representative design in psychology and economics. Journal of Economic Methodology, 12(2), 253-263.
20. Hyland, J. J., Jones, D. L., Parkhill, K. A., Barnes, A. P., & Williams, A. P. (2016). Farmers’ perceptions of climate change: identifying types. Agriculture and Human Values, 33(2), 323-339.
21. Ibidhi, R., Hoekstra, A. Y., Gerbens-Leenes, P. W., & Chouchane, H. (2017). Water, land and carbon footprints of sheep and chicken meat produced in Tunisia under different farming systems. Ecological Indicators, 77, 304-313.
22. Koryś, K. A., Latawiec, A. E., Grotkiewicz, K., & Kuboń, M. (2019). The Review of Biomass Potential for Agricultural Biogas Production in Poland. Sustainability, 11(22), 6515.
23. Kristensen, D. K., Kjeldsen, C., & Thorsøe, M. H. (2016). Enabling sustainable agro-food futures: exploring fault lines and synergies between the integrated territorial paradigm, rural eco-economy and circular economy. Journal of Agricultural and Environm
24. Lewandowska-Czarnecka, A., Buller, L. S., Nienartowicz, A., & Piernik, A. (2019). Energy and emergy analysis for assessing changes in Polish agriculture since the accession to the European Union. Ecological Modelling, 412, 108819.
25. Martins, N. O. (2016). Ecosystems, strong sustainability and the classical circular economy. Ecological Economics, 129, 32-39.
26. Melece, L. (2016). Challenges and opportunities of circular economy and green economy. Engineering for Rural Development, 1162-1169.
27. Mohammed, S., Alsafadi, K., Takács, I., & Harsányi, E. (2019). Contemporary changes of greenhouse gases emission from the agricultural sector in the EU-27. Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes, 1-6.
28. Niles, M. T., Ahuja, R., Barker, T., Esquivel, J., Gutterman, S., Heller, M. C., Mango N., Portner D., Raimond R., Tirado C., & Vermeulen, S. (2018). Climate change mitigation beyond agriculture: a review of food system opportunities and implications. Ren
29. Olszańska, A., Piwowar, A., Olszańska, M. (2017). Size and seasonality of buying of pigs for slaughter in the countries of the Visegrad Group (2005-2015). Double-blind peer-reviewed proceedings of the International Scientific Conference Hradec Economic Da
30. Peoples, M. B., Hauggaard-Nielsen, H., Huguenin-Elie, O., Jensen, E. S., Justes, E., & Williams, M. (2019). The contributions of legumes to reducing the environmental risk of agricultural production. In Agroecosystem Diversity (pp. 123-143). Academic Pres
31. Pezzagno, M., Richiedei, A., & Tira, M. (2020). Spatial Planning Policy for Sustainability: Analysis Connecting Land Use and GHG Emission in Rural Areas. Sustainability, 12(3), 947.
32. Piwowar, A. (2019a). Low carbon agriculture in Poland - theoretical and practical challenges. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 28(4),1-8.
33. Piwowar A. (2019b). Buildings in agricultural holdings in the context of low-carbon development of the agriculture and rural areas in Poland, [In:] Education Excellence and Innovation Management through Vision 2020 (Ed. Khalid S. Soliman). 33rd IBIMA Conf
34. Piwowar, A. (2020). Attitudes and opinions of farmers in the context of environmental protection in rural areas in Poland. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192(3), 1-10.
35. Piwowar, A., Dzikuć, M. (2019). Development of renewable energy sources in the context of threats resulting from low-altitude emissions in rural areas in Poland: A review. Energies, 12(18), 3558.
36. Pondel, H. (2019). Agriculture in the face of climate challenges-the problem of greenhouse gas emissions. Annals PAAAE, XXI (2), 246-255.
37. Prokopy, L. S., Arbuckle, J. G., Barnes, A. P., Haden, V. R., Hogan, A., Niles, M. T., & Tyndall, J. (2015). Farmers and climate change: A cross-national comparison of beliefs and risk perceptions in high-income countries. Environmental Management, 56(2),
38. Šarauskis, E., Masilionytė, L., Juknevičius, D., Buragienė, S., & Kriaučiūnienė, Z. (2019). Energy use efficiency, GHG emissions, and cost-effectiveness of organic and sustainable fertilisation. Energy, 172, 1151-1160.
39. Sobczyk, M. (1995). Statystyka, PWN, Warsaw: 151-152 [In Polish].
40. Suresh, K. P., & Chandrashekara, S. (2012). Sample size estimation and power analysis for clinical research studies. Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences, 5(1), 7-13. DOI: https://doi:10.4103/0974-1208.97779.
41. Świtek, S., Takacs, V., Sawinska, Z., Kosiada, T., & Tryjanowski, P. (2019). Mineral nitrogen fertilisers remain a crucial factor even in the ecological intensification of agriculture. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B—Soil & Plant Science, 69(4),
42. Toop, T. A., Ward, S., Oldfield, T., Hull, M., Kirby, M. E., & Theodorou, M. K. (2017). AgroCycle–developing a circular economy in agriculture. Energy Procedia, 123, 76-80.
43. Wang, W., Guo, L., Li, Y., Su, M., Lin, Y., De Perthuis, C., Ju, X., Lin, E., & Moran, D. (2015). Greenhouse gas intensity of three main crops and implications for low-carbon agriculture in China. Climatic Change, 128(1-2), 57-70.
44. Wardal, W. J., & Pawlak, J. (2019). An attempt to estimate CO2 emissions caused by energy consumption in Polish agriculture. Polish Technical Review, 4, 13-22.
45. Widayati, T., & Yusuf, E. (2017). Strategies for Environmental, Economic, and Social Sustainability of Potato Agriculture in Dieng plateau Central Java Indonesia. Journal of Environmental Management & Tourism, 8, 259-269.
46. Wiśniewski, P., & Kistowski, M. (2017). The use of agricultural soils as a source of nitrous oxide emission in selected communes of Poland. Bulletin of Geography. Physical Geography Series, 13(1), 39-49.
47. Xu, B., & Lin, B. (2017). Factors affecting CO2 emissions in China’s agriculture sector: Evidence from geographically weighted regression model. Energy Policy, 104, 404-414.