Economics & Sociology

ISSN: 2071-789X eISSN: 2306-3459 DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X
Index PUBMS: f5512f57-a601-11e7-8f0e-080027f4daa0
Article information
Title: Can Rural-Urban Migrants Escape from Poverty? Evidence from Four Indonesian Cities
Issue: Vol. 11, No 2, 2018
Published date: 06-2018 (print) / 06-2018 (online)
Journal: Economics & Sociology
ISSN: 2071-789X, eISSN: 2306-3459
Authors: Devanto Shasta Pratomo
Brawijaya University
Keywords: poverty, migration, rural-urban migrants
DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X.2018/11-2/12
Index PUBMS: d906e198-cdea-11e8-92b1-901b0efa6e97
Language: English
Pages: 173-183 (11)
JEL classification: I32, J61, R23

This study examines the probability of rural-urban migrants in Indonesia living under poverty at destination. The poverty levels is divided into three categories including poor households, near-poor households, and non-poor households, basing on the definition of Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics’s poverty lines using the expenditure approach. Using Rural-Urban Migration of Indonesia and China (RUMiCI) 2011 data, the findings show that migrants tend to be categorized as non-poor as compared to non-migrants. The important factors that help migrants to escape from poverty include education of household heads, the number of dependents, and previous working experience in the modern sectors.


1. Adams, Jr, R. H., Page, J. (2005). Do international migration and remittances reduce poverty in developing countries? World Development, 33(10), 1645-1669.

2. Adams, Jr, R. H., Cuecuecha, A. (2010). The economic impact of international remittances on poverty and household consumption and investment in Indonesia. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series, No. WPS5433, Washington. D. C, World Bank.

3. Adams, Jr, R. H., Cuecuecha, A., Page, J. (2008). The impact of remittances on poverty and inequality in Ghana. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series, No. WPS4732, Washington. D.C, World Bank.

4. Effendi, T. N., Mujiyani, F. I., Darmawan, D. A., Widhyharto, D. S. (2009). Compositions and Characteristics of Rural Urban Migrants in Four Indonesian Cities. Working Paper, Centre for Population and Policy Studies, Yogyakarta, Universitas Gadjah Mada.

5. Firman, T., Kombaitan, B., Pradono, P. (2007). The dynamics of Indonesia's urbanisation, 1980-2006. Urban Policy and Research, 25(4), 433-454.

6. Galloway, T. A., Aaberge, R. (2005). Assimilation effects on poverty among immigrants in Norway. Journal of Population Economics, 18(4), 691-718.

7. Gong, H., Leigh, A., Meng, X. (2012). Intergenerational income mobility in urban China. Review of Income and Wealth, 58(3), 481-503.

8. Lelkes, O. (2007). Poverty among migrants in Europe. European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, Policy Brief. April.

9. Manning, C., Pratomo, D. S. (2013). Do migrants get stuck in the informal sector? Findings from a household survey in four Indonesian cities. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 49(2), 167-192.

10. Meng, X., Manning, C. (2010). The great migration in China and Indonesia: Trends and institutions. The great migration: Rural–urban migration in China and Indonesia, 1-22.

11. Odhiambo, W., Manda, D. K. (2003). Urban poverty and labor force participation in Kenya. Paper presented at the “World Bank Urban Research Symposium,” Washington D.C. on 15-17 December, 2003.

12. Park, A., Wang, D. (2010). Migration and urban poverty and inequality in China. China Economic Journal, 3(1), 49-67.

13. Resosudarmo, B. P., Suryahadi, A., Purnagunawan, R., Yumna, A., Yusrina, A. (2009a). The socioeconomic and health status of rural-urban migrants in Indonesia. Jakarta. SMERU Research Institute.

14. Resosudarmo, B., Yamauchi, C., Effendi, T. (2009b). Rural-urban migration in Indonesia: Survey design and implementation. Working Paper, Rumici Project, Canberra, Australian National University.

15. Resosudarmo, B., Suryadarma, D. (2014). The impact of childhood migration on educational attainment: Evidence from rural-urban migrants in Indonesia. Asian Population Studies, 10(3), 319-333.

16. Skeldon, R. (2002). Migration and poverty: Ambivalent relationships. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, 67-82.

17. Tacoli, C., McGranahan, G., Satterthwaite, D. (2008). Urbanization, poverty and inequity: Is rural-urban migration a poverty problem or part of the solution. The New Global Frontier: Urbanization, Poverty and Environment in the 21st century, 37-53.

18. Weber, B., Marre, A., Fisher, M., Gibbs, R., Cromartie, J. (2007). Education's effect on poverty: The role of migration. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, 29(3), 437-445.

19. Yang, D., Martínez, A. (2005). Remittances and poverty in migrants’ home areas: Evidence