Economics & Sociology

ISSN: 2071-789X eISSN: 2306-3459 DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X
Index PUBMS: f5512f57-a601-11e7-8f0e-080027f4daa0
Article information
Title: Validating the Instrument to Measure Entrepreneurial Traits
Issue: Vol. 11, No 1, 2018
Published date: 30-03-2018 (print) / 30-03-2018 (online)
Journal: Economics & Sociology
ISSN: 2071-789X, eISSN: 2306-3459
Authors: Abdullah Al Mamun
Global Entrepreneurship Research and Innovation Centre, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan

Mohd Nor Hakimin Bin Yusoff
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan

Mohamed Dahlan Ibrahim
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan
Keywords: Instrument, Entrepreneurial Traits
DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X.2018/11-1/9
Index PUBMS: fbb5e54b-8696-11e8-911b-901b0efa6e97
Language: English
Pages: 139-155 (17)
JEL classification: L26
Website: http://www.economics-sociology.eu/?560,en_validating-the-instrumentto-measure-entrepreneurial-traits
Licenses:
Abstract

The objective of this study is to develop a distilled measure for entrepreneurial traits particularly in the context of low-income households in Malaysia. In this attempt, the following study examined the need for achievement, locus of control, tolerance of ambiguity, visionary, persistence, and resilience as components to develop an instrument to measure entrepreneurial traits among low-income households in Kelantan, Malaysia. The study adopted a cross-sectional design and collected quantitative data through structured interviews from 800 low-income households across four districts in Kelantan, Malaysia. Based on the reliability and validity tests, this study finalized the instrument reducing a 58 items scale to 20 items yielding four factors, i.e., need for achievement (five items), tolerance of ambiguity (five items), visionary (four items), and persistence (six items). Findings of the reflective hierarchical model revealed that persistence is the highest contributor towards entrepreneurial traits among the low-income households in Kelantan, followed by tolerance of ambiguity, need for achievement, and visionary. It is recommended that future researchers further extend the developed measure by cross-examining the instrument forwarded by this study across different income-level groups living throughout diverse economies.

Bibliography

1. Al-Mamun, A., Saufi, R. A., & Ismail, M. B. (2016). Human capital, credit, and startup motives: A study among rural micro-enterprises in Malaysia. The Journal of Developing Areas, 50(4), 383-400.

2. Baron, R. A., & Markman, G. D. (2000). Beyond social capital: How social skills can enhance entrepreneurs’ success. Academy of Management Executive, 14(1), 106-116.

3. Baum, J. R., & Locke, E. A. (2004). The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skill, and motivation to subsequent venture growth. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4), 587-598.

4. Beattie, S. (2016). Which entrepreneurial traits are the most critical in determining success? Otago Management Graduate Review, 14, 13-20.

5. Begley, T. M., & Boyd, D. P. (1987). Psychological characteristics associated with performence in entrepreneurial firms and smaller businesses. Journal of Business Venturing, 2(1), 79-93.

6. Bullough, A., Renko, M., & Myatt, T. (2014). Danger zone entrepreneurs: The importance of resilience and self‐efficacy for entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(3), 473-499.

7. Cardon, M. S., Wincent, J., Singh, J., & Drnovsek, M. (2009). The nature and experience of entrepreneurial passion. Academy of Management Review, 34(3), 511-532.

8. Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1994). Charismatic leadership in organizations: Perceived behavioral attributes and their measurement. Journal of organizational behavior, 15(5), 439-452.

9. Craig, A. R., Franklin, J. A., & Andrews, G. (1984). A scale to measure locus of control of behaviour. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 57(2), 173-180.

10. Cuervo, Á., Ribeiro, D., & Roig, S. (Eds.). (2007). Entrepreneurship: Concepts, theory and perspective. Springer Science & Business Media.

11. Driessen, M. P., & Zwart, P. S. (2007). The entrepreneur scan measuring characteristics and traits of entrepreneurs. Available from Internet:< http://www. necarbo. eu/files/E-scan% 20MAB% 20Article. pdf.

12. Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of personality and social psychology, 92(6), 1087.

13. Fernald-Jr, L. W., Solomon, G. T., & Tarabishy, A. (2005). A new paradigm: Entrepreneurial leadership. Southern Business Review, 30(2), 1-10.

14. Gartner, W. B. (1990). What are we talking about when we talk about entrepreneurship? Journal of Business Venturing, 5(1), 15-28.

15. Grant, R. M. (1991). The resource-based theory of competitive advantage: Implications for strategy formulation. California Management Review, 33(3), 114-135.

16. Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications.

17. Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139-152.

18. Hayward, M. L. A., Forster, W. R., Sarasvathy, S. D., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2010). Beyond hubris: How highly confident entrepreneurs rebound to venture again. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(6), 569-578.

19. Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M. & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. Advances in International Marketing, 20, 277-319.

20. Ibrahim, A. B., & Soufani, K. (2002). Entrepreneurship education and training in Canada: A critical assessment. Education+ Training, 44(8/9), 421-430.

21. Locke, E. (2000). Motivation, cognition, and action: An analysis of studies of task goals and knowledge. Applied Psychology, 49(3), 408-429.

22. Locke, E. A., & Baum, J. R. (2007). Entrepreneurial motivation. In: J. R. Baum, M. Frese, & R. A. Baron (Eds.). The Psychology of Entrepreneurship (pp. 93-112). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

23. Markman, G., Baron, R., & Balkin, D. (2005). Are perseverance and self-efficacy costless? Assessing entrepreneurs’ regretful thinking. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 1-19.

24. McClelland, D. C. (1961). The achieving society. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.

25. McClelland, D. C. (1965). Toward a theory of motive acquisition. American Psychologist, 20, 321-333.

26. McLain, D. L. (1993). The MSTAT-I: A new measure of an individual's tolerance for ambiguity. Educational and psychological measurement, 53(1), 183-189.

27. Mueller, S. L., & Thomas, A. S. (2001). Culture and entrepreneurial potential: A nine country study of locus of control and innovativeness. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(1), 51-75.

28. Naude, W., Gries, T., Wood, E., & Meintjies, A. (2008). Regional determinants of entrepreneurial start-ups in a developing country. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 20(2), 111-124.

29. Nazri, M. A., Aroosha, H., & Omar, N. A. (2016). Examination of factors affecting youths’ entrepreneurial intention: A cross-sectional study. Information Management and Business Review, 8(5), 14-24.

30. Noraishah, B. (2003). Code-switching among the undergraduates of University Technology Malaysia. Unpublished dissertation, University Technology of Malaysia.

31. Norasmah, O., & Faridah, K. (2010). Entrepreneurship Behaviour amongst Malaysian University Students. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 18(1), 23-32.

32. Pendergast, W. R. (2003). Entrepreneurial contexts and traits of entrepreneurs. In: Proceedings of Teaching Entrepreneurship to Engineering Students. Available at: <http://services.bepress.com/eci/teaching>. Acessed: 09 February. 2017.

33. Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80(1), 1-28.

34. Sarasvathy, S. D., & Venkataraman, S. (2011). Entrepreneurship as method: Open questions for an entrepreneurial future. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(1), 113-135.

35. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217-226.

36. Shane, S., Locke, E. A. & Collins, C. J. (2003). Entrepreneurial motivation. Human Resource Management Review, 13(2), 257-279.

37. Sitkin, S. B., & Pablo, A. L. (1992). Reconceptualizing the determinants of risk behavior. Academy of Management Review, 17(1), 9-38.

38. Smith, B. W., Dalen, J., Wiggins, K., Tooley, E., Christopher, P., & Bernard, J. (2008). The brief resilience scale: assessing the ability to bounce back. International journal of behavioral medicine, 15(3), 194-200.

39. Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual foundations and empirical evidence. Psychological Inquiry, 15(1), 1-18.

40. Wong, P. K., Ho, Y. P., & Autio, E. (2005). Entrepreneurship, innovation and economic growth: Evidence from GEM data. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 335-350.

41. Zimmer, C. (1986). Entrepreneurship through social networks. The art and science of entrepreneurship. Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, 3-23.